Monday, May 25, 2020

Rare Earth Properties

When you look at the Periodic Table, there is a two-row block of elements located below the main body of the chart. These elements, plus lanthanum (element 57) and actinium (element 89), are known collectively as the rare earth elements or rare earth metals. Actually, they arent particularly rare, but prior to 1945, long and tedious processes were required to purify the metals from their oxides. Ion-exchange and solvent extraction processes are used today to quickly produce highly pure, low-cost rare earths, but the old name is still in use. The rare earth metals are found in group 3 of the periodic table, and the 6th (5d electronic configuration) and 7th (5f electronic configuration) periods. There are some arguments for starting the 3rd and 4th transition series with lutetium and lawrencium rather than lanthanum and actinium. There are two blocks of rare earths, the lanthanide series, and the actinide series. Lanthanum and actinium are both located in group IIIB of the table. When you look at the periodic table, notice that the atomic numbers make a jump from lanthanum (57) to hafnium (72) and from actinium (89) to rutherfordium (104). If you skip down to the bottom of the table, you can follow the atomic numbers from lanthanum to cerium and from actinium to thorium, and then back up to the main body of the table. Some chemists exclude lanthanum and actinium from the rare earths, considering the lanthanides to start following lanthanum and the actinides to start following actinium. In a way, the rare earths are special transition metals, possessing many of the properties of these elements. Common Properties of the Rare Earths These common properties apply to both the lanthanides and actinides. The rare earths are silver, silvery-white, or gray metals.The metals have a high luster but tarnish readily in air.The metals have high electrical conductivity.The rare earths share many common properties. This makes them difficult to separate or even distinguish from each other.There are very small differences in solubility and complex formation between the rare earths.The rare earth metals naturally occur together in minerals (e.g., monazite is a mixed rare earth phosphate).Rare earths are found with non-metals, usually in the 3 oxidation state. There is little tendency to vary the valence. (Europium also has a valence of 2 and cerium also a valence of 4.)

Friday, May 15, 2020

Working capital efficiency of private and public sector enterprises - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 15 Words: 4643 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? An attempt is made to study the fundamentals of working capital management and these are utilized to compare the working capital efficiency of public private sector enterprises by taking cases of two disparate business firms. Purpose of the study The disclosure of factors which are responsible for formation of a disparity in the management of the current assets and liabilities between the private the public sector business enterprises is a genuinely multifaceted charge. The research is an attempt to compare the working capital management of private sector and public sector business enterprises. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Working capital efficiency of private and public sector enterprises" essay for you Create order Significance of the study Working capital for any business enterprise is the nervous system for its operations. None of the businesses can efficiently survive in the long run without maintaining a sufficient level of working capital. It is vital for its sole existence in the corporate environment. The management of working capital is one of the most pertinent functions of enterprise. Any business entity having sufficient level of working capital would always be in a better position to get advantages or benefits of any uncertain opportunity either to buy higher levels of raw materials or attain a special sort of a tender offer or to wait for the right moment to get back to the enhanced and improved market circumstances. Working capital can be employed for the lease payment, payroll of an employee of the organization, all the everyday operating costs involved. This working capital is also an essential element when circumstances of unexpected elements arise. The growth of the organization on the whole depends on the efficient effective management and utilization of working element. So, it should be dealt with properly. Working capital also proves to be an essential element to generate revenues, returns dividends for the stakeholders. Inefficient handling and allocation of working capital would lead to poor results and would substantiate the benefits of financials on the short term basis. To attain objectives of profitability and sustained growth for the business enterprise, the efficient and effective management of the working capital becomes the most essential element. The management of this working capital is a tedious task, as it varies across businesses on the basis of elements like actual nature of the enterprise, the kind of raw materials utilized for operations, the technology deployed, finished goods maintained, level of inventory its management, credit policy undertaken by the firm etc. Also, a noteworthy amount of finance is required for the lasting investment in dissimi lar forms of current assets. In this paper, the management of working capital with respect to the private public sector business enterprises will be discussed taking an example case. The sector for the comparison will be the iron steel diligence. Some of the prominent features reflected are the following: The outline of alterations in the actual amount of the current assets is almost similar for both the enterprises. Utilization of short term financing to meet the lack of inventory or cash shortages is almost equal in both the private public sector enterprises. These two sectors classify the sections of the current assets current liabilities in a similar format. The sales revenues are improved by increased efficiency in the management of the working capital. The profitability and retained earnings therefore dividends paid to the companys shareholders are improved by proper management of working capital. Methodology The methodology for this paper is as follows: In review of literature, the theory on working capital management has been analyzed. The analysis of survey data section compares contrasts the working capital ratios of both the public private sector enterprises. In the later part of the paper, conclusion recommendations have been discussed. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Working Capital Management Working capital basically refers to the money value difference between the current assets the current assets of a firm. It is equal to Net Working Capital. Some of the financial analysts like to consider just the current assets which include cash marketable securities, inventory the receivables. The administration enforced deployed by the firm to manage the current assets the actual financing needed by the firm to support the present needs is referred to as Working Capital Management. Working capital is one of the most essential elements of any firms financials. The current assets of a characteristic manufacturing company account for more than half of the total assets. It may even account for more for a distribution company. Excessive disproportionate levels of current assets can easily lead to substandard levels of ROI (return on investment) realization. Also the other way round, maintaining very less current assets may lead to opportunity losses, shortages, would face d ifficulty in maintaining executing smooth operations. The current liabilities are the primary source of financing from external sources, if we consider smaller sized firms. The fast growing large sized companies also include financing based on current liabilities. It is the direct responsibility of the financial manager to manage the cash marketable securities, accounts payables, accounts receivables, other mechanisms to deploy short term financing. But the management of inventories isnt under the discretion of the financial manager. Thus, a good proportion of the financial manager time should be dedicated for the management of the working capital as it is pertinent to a firms profitability. Profitability Risk The two underlying fundamental decisions issues for a sound working capital management of a firm are: The optimum level of investment the current assets The correct blend of short term long term financing which would be used to support this investment in current assets. The lessening in level of investment in current assets, while generating proper sales, would definitely increase the firms return on its assets. To the extent that the explicit costs of short term financing, the greater the proportion of short term debt as compared to total debt, the higher is the profitability of the firm. Although the interest rates for short term financing are higher than those involved in the long term financing. Nevertheless, the short term debt are going result in much higher returns as compared to long term debts as debts will be paid during the period when it is not required. These assumptions for profitability suggest us for maintaining a lower level of current assets a greate r proportion of current liabilities. This will result in negative level of the net working capital. Profitability means more risk. Risk here means threat to the firm for improper management to maintain sufficient current assets to Meet the cash obligations that the firm incurs Sustain the proper levels of sales for example running out of the inventory The two most basic principles involved in management of working capital can be listed as: Profitability varies inversely with liquidity Profitability moves together with risk. Permanent working capital may be defined as the amount of current assets required in order to meet a firms long term need on a minimum level. Temporary working capital may be defined as the sum of current assets that differ with seasonal needs. If a firm decides to adopt a hedging i.e. maturity matching approach to financing, each asset would be an offset, to a similar financial instrument of almost the same maturity levels. The seasonal v ariations short term in current assets should be financed with short term debts. The permanent component of the current assets, also the set of fixed assets should be financed with long term debt. If we try to generalise the facts, the longer the composite maturity schedule of the financials utilised by the firm, the less risk is associated with it. Nevertheless, the longer this maturity schedule, the costlier the finance is ought to be. Thus, there is a trade-off existing between profitability risk. The working capital requirements of a firm are dependent on a number of factors. Some of the important ones are the following: Nature of the business enterprise The nature of the business enterprise the working capital requirements of the firm are interlinked. The manufacturing sectors have a longer cycle of operation, the services sectors have a comparatively shorter cycle of working capital. This amount varies as business engaged in production activities would require more amount of working capital. Manufacturing Policies Every firm will have different set of manufacturing principles. For example, some of the firms would like to continuing to follow uniform policies even if there are fluctuations is demand, some would prefer to follow principle based on the varying demand. Thus, the working capital requirements for both the firms would be dissimilar. Market Conditions Market conditions like higher competition, need for faster delivery of goods services, need for credit etc., the requirements of working capital would be higher. If there is lesser competition in the market, the requirements of working capital will be lesser. Availability of raw materials If there is constant ready availability of raw material, concept of JIT may be implemented, and the need to maintain inventory warehouses diminishes. On the other way round, inventory has to be maintained thereby increasing the working capital requirements. Growth Expansion Wh en growths expansions take place for an organization, the enhanced requirements of working capital arises. There is a need for larger set of working capital to fund the business activities. Price level changes If there is a trend of increasing price levels, a requirement of higher investment in the working capital arises. There is a need to enhance the investments in the current assets, thereby altering the working capital requirements. Manufacturing Cycle The manufacturing cycle basically may be defined as the period from the purchase of raw material to the fabrication of finished products. Longer the manufacturing cycle, the need for working capital increases. Some of the consequences of under-assessment of Working Capital are the following: The growth of the business firm may get stunted. Due to non-availability of adequate amount of working capital, undertaking of opportunistic profitable projects on the part of the firm becomes difficult. The implementatio n of strategic, tactical operational plans becomes difficult, resulting in lower profitability. A crisis in cash may emerge because of scarcity of working capital. The fixed assets may not be utilised to optimum level capacity due to lower availability of funds. Te credibility of the business enterprise may be adversely affected as it would fail to tribute to its prior commitments. This may lead to future business relations closure. To obtain cash, the firm may be forced to purchase raw materials on credit sell its finished products on cash. These quick actions may increase the purchase costs reduce the selling costs because of possibility of discounts to be offered. These situations greatly hamper the profitability of the business enterprise. It may lead to stoppage or slow down of production process because of non-availability of working capital funds. Some of the consequences of over-assessment of Working Capital are the following: It may lead to pointless building up of inventory, thereby increasing carrying costs. The firm may become tolerant enough to provide liberal credit terms to the buyers, may result in a poor management of cash recovery mechanism. The management may become complacent over satisfied, resulting in inefficient operations. The capital gets less productive it may lead to reduction in ROI (return on investment). METHODOLOGY Procedures The research methodology used for collecting the data was primarily of secondary nature. The data was collected from the annual reports of the two companies provided by various web sites like moneycontrol.com were studied comprehensively and analysed to arrive at a result. Calculations for the regression analysis have been performed using the Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, by putting the values in the appropriate formulae. Participants The research has been conducted solely by the author. No other participants were involved in the research no surveys were conducted. The data have been collected from the internet analysis has been performed based on the results arising from the calculations performed. Instrumentation The data collected have been depicted in relational format. Graphs and pie-charts have also been included to demonstrate the trends in market conditions and comparison of the same over the past years. ANALYSIS OF DATA The following tables show the various working capital ratios and other important functionalities for the financial years 2006-2010. The regression analysis is conducted the results are presented in the 3rd table. TISCO Working Capital Management Ratios Ratios Financial Years 2007 2008 2009 2010 Liquidity Ratios Current Ratio It measures the ability of the firm to meet the current liabilities with current assets. Current Assets Current Liabilities 1.203 1.113 2.513 5.461 Quick ratio It measure the ability of the firm to meet the current liabilities with the highly liquid current assets Current Assets less inventories Current Liabilities 0.597 0.542 2.085 5.075 Cash Proportion ratio It identifies the measured proportion of cash included in the assets 0.07 0.067 0.571 0.023 Working Capital Efficiency Working Capital Turnover It measure the usage of working capital to generate sales revenue over a given period of time. Sales Working Capital 41.41 39.33 2.394 0.735 Inventory Turnover It measures how many times the inventory has been turned over into cash during the year. Cost of Goods sold Inventory 6.094 4. 94 2.385 4.896 Debtors Turnover It measures the no. of times the receivables have been turned over to cash during the year. Annual net credit sales Receivables 25.67 30.67 33.65 37.81 Creditors Turnover It measures the actual rate at which the firm pays off to its suppliers. Total Supplier Purchases Average Accounts Payable 3.61 2.97 2.85 2.42 Asset Turnover It is the amount of revenue created for unit worth of the assets. Revenue Assets 3.89 4.05 1.45 0.7 Working Capital Structure Ratios Current Assets to Total Net Assets Current Assets Total Net Assets 0.337 0.287 0.54 0.79 Current Liabilities to Total Liabilities Currents Liabilities Total Liabilities 0.305 0.273 0.231 0.146 Working Capital Leverage Current Assets/Total Assets ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Current Assets 0.365 0.287 0.858 1.571 RINL Working Capital Management Ratios Ratios Financial Years 2007 2008 2009 2010 Liquidity Ratios Current Ratio It measures the ability of the firm to meet the current liabilities with current assets. Current Assets Current Liabilities 6.171 5.182 4.85 3.712 Quick ratio It measure the ability of the firm to meet the current liabilities with the highly liquid current assets Current Assets less inventories Current Liabilities 4.891 4.45 4.45 3.245 Cash Proportion ratio It identifies the measured proportion of cash included in the assets 0.67 0.682 0.823 0.78 Working Capital Efficiency Working Capital Turnover It measure the usage of working capital to generate sales revenue over a given period of time. Sales Working Capital 1.64 1.22 1.08 1.23 Inventory Turnover It measures how many times the inventory has been turned over into cash during the year. Cost of Goods sold Inventory 4.67 4.55 5.0 9 4.64 Debtors Turnover It measures the no. of times the receivables have been turned over to cash during the year. Annual net credit sales Receivables 121.2 78.23 47.84 61.04 Creditors Turnover It measures the actual rate at which the firm pays off to its suppliers. Total Supplier Purchases Average Accounts Payable Asset Turnover It is the amount of revenue created for unit worth of the assets. Revenue Assets 1.23 1.07 0.83 0.84 Working Capital Structure Ratios Current Assets to Total Net Assets Current Assets Total Net Assets 0.72 0.923 0.97 0.98 Current Liabilities to Total Liabilities Currents Liabilities Total Liabilities 0.123 0.17 0.19 0.27 Working Capital Leverage Current Assets/Total Assets ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Current Assets 1.65 1.23 1.25 1.11 D/P Ratio, DPS EPS data Financial Details TISCO RINL FY 1 FY 2 FY 3 FY 4 FY 1 FY 2 FY 3 FY 4 EPS 62.76 410.8 410.8 410.8 410.8 10.79 4.36 3.72 D/P 23.46 DPS 14.84 Regression Analysis Company Regression equation y = c + dx, where x = sales, y = debtors Sales Turnover (in cr. Rs.) Debtors (in cr. Rs.) Debtors turnover ratio (in times) TISCO y = 713.945 0.0075x 20,000 570.768 35.05 RINL y = 22.446 + 0.0117x 22,000 25.467 785.8 Discussions on the basis of management of cash TISCO has the range of composition of the cash balance as compared to the total current assets is between 1% 54%. RINL has the range of composition between 66% and 70%. In 2008-09, the cash balances of TISCO gets to it maximum value it tries to maintain the consistent level of operation. In case of RINL, the cash balances have increased at a fast rate. In case of TISCO, the current ratios and the quick ratios demonstrate a pattern trend in the upward direction. The cash proportion ratios initially increase for the period of 2008-09, but then demonstrate a decreasing pattern. The possible reason in this case can be that the inflow of funds is higher and the loans advances have been created in a greater proportion. In case of RINL, if we leave the cash proportion ratio, the liquidity ratios have tended to fall. The decrement is highest in the financial year 2009-10, as can be seen from the tables. In case of TISCO, the inflow of funds in the initial years of the research ha s been primarily through the operating activities. In the next couple of years, the inflow of funds is from both the operating and financing activities. The inflow of funds from the financing activities has increased through in the later part of this period. If we observe carefully, it can be seen that the outflow of cash in the initial couple of years has been primarily through the financing activities. There has been increase in the investment activities, thereby increasing the cash outflows. In case of RINL, the cash inflow is all the way by the operating activities but there is a decrease till 2008-09. The company had its inflow of cash through investing financing activities for two years out of the 4 years. Cash outflows were also observed for the two years. In case of TISCO, there is an observable difference between the cash obtained from operations before and after the working capital changes because of adjustments. The rate of growth for TISCO has been slow steady in th e domain of depreciation. In case of RINL, the cash obtained from operations before there are alterations in working capital decrease till FY 2007-08 and then the values improve after that. In case of TISCO, the loans advances remain at a higher level than the cash balances for the initial couple of years. The third year comes with an increase in cash balance. In the fourth year again the loans advances exceed the cash balances as it declines with a greater rate. In case of RINL, the cash balances grow with a high rate, but decline in FY 2009-10. The cash balances increase steadily throughout the period. In TISCO, the cash outflows can be observed in the first the fourth year, while cash inflows can be observed in the 2 years which are in between. The interest paid by the company has remained higher than the amount of dividends paid to the shareholders, the amount continuously gradually improves over time. In case of RINL, the cash inflow can be observed in all the 4 year s. Nevertheless, there is decrease in the amount of cash inflow. The firm hasnt declared dividends in these observed financial years. As the dividends havent been paid, the cash outflow because of this has been removed. Other measures of cash outflow such as the financial costs against the long term costs have gradually increased over the 4 years. Discussions on the basis of management of inventory TISCO has maintained a proper level of inventory for the observed period. When we observe the inventory composition, the raw materials the inventory for finished goods have the highest proportion, the values can be seen to be increasing for the complete period. The materials in store can be observed to systematically increase but the values remain below the raw materials finished products. The inventory composition of work in progress has remained lowest for the observed period. In case of RINL, the highest composition is for the work in progress finished products inventory. The raw materials composition comes next the lowest composition is for the materials in store. If we compare the annual revenues sales for TISCO, these have increased gradually for the period span. The annual cost of sales has a larger portion. The annual cost of production has remained low, but an increase can be observed in the year 2009-10. The annual cost of raw materials has remained lower as comp ared with the annual purchases if we leave the year 2006-07. In case of RINL, the annual sales have continuously increased for the period. A substantial difference can be observed between annual revenues and costs. The costs have also increased for the period. The cost of production has remained lower than the cost of production. The cost of raw materials has increased with a certain rate. The working capital to sales ratio for TISCO has remained high for the initial period, but has declined substantially in the next time span. The inventory turnover has remained steady for the period. The assets turnover ratio has the lowest value, and has decreased from the 2nd year. In case of RINL, inventory turnover has remained low. The working capital turnover ratio the assets turnover ratio doesnt show any noteworthy alterations. Discussions on the basis of management of receivables TISCO hasnt been relying on customer advances in order to meet its short term obligations. The values of sundry debtors have increased over the period, but with a gradual degree, as some constancy can been seen. The sundry debtors have remained lower as when compared to the advances from customers. For RINL, sundry debtors decrease in the year 2009-10, other than that there has been a gradual increase. The debtors turnover in case of TISCO has gone down, which symbolises growth prosperity for the company. As the years have passed by, the asset turnover ratio the payables turnover have increased. The creditors turnover has remained under the assets turnover ratio for the period of time. In case of RINL, the debtors turnover ratio has reached its peak value in 2006-07, but has reduced after that year. Based on regression analysis, receivables turnover ratio estimated calculated for TISCO is around 35.04 times. The receivables turnover ratio based on regression analysis for RINL is around 785.8 times is quite high. COMPARATIVE CHARTS: TREND IN WORKING CAPITAL TO SALES RATIO Chart demonstrating the Working Capital to Sales ratio for both companies: CURRENT ASSET COMPOSITION Current assets composition for TISCO over the 4 years: FY 2006-07 FY 2007-08 FY 2008-09 FY 2009-10 Current assets composition for RINL over the 4 years: FY 2006-07 FY 2007-08 FY 2008-09 FY 2009-10 CASH FLOWS Cash flows from diverse activities for RINL Cash flows from diverse activities for TISCO Some of the inferences that can be drawn are: RINL has been a lot conservative regarding the liquidity, as compared to TISCO. The cash producing ability for RINL declines for its operating activities. Therefore, the dependence on other sources for cash requirements is higher. RINL didnt go for any king of acquisition or other action during the period of 4 years. RINL hasnt engaged in payment of dividends to its shareholders. Thus, it can be seen that working capital for any commerce enterprise is the nervous system for its processes. None of the businesses can resourcefully continue to exist in the long run without maintaining a adequate level of working capital. It is vital for its only continuation in the corporate atmosphere. The organization of working capital is one of the most important functions of enterprise. Any business unit having adequate level of working capital would always be in a improved situation to get advantages or remuneration of any uncertain pr ospect either to buy superior levels of raw materials or achieve a special sort of a tender offer or to wait for the right second to get back to the enhanced and improved market conditions. Working capital can be engaged for the lease imbursement, payroll of an member of staff of the organization, all the everyday operating expenses concerned. This working capital is also an essential constituent when circumstances of unforeseen fundamentals arise. The growth of the business on the entire level depends on the efficient effective administration and deployment of working component. So, it should be dealt with appropriately. Working capital also establishes to be an vital element to produce revenues, returns dividends for the stakeholders. Unproductive treatment and allotment of working capital would lead to reduced results and would authenticate the profits of financials on the short term basis. To attain goals of profitability and continued development for the business enter prise, the efficient and valuable management of the working capital becomes the most vital element. The management of this working capital is a dull task, as it varies athwart businesses on the basis of elements like real nature of the enterprise, the kind of raw materials utilized for operations, the expertise deployed, finished commodities maintained, level of inventory its supervision, credit policy undertaken by the firm etc. Also, a noteworthy amount of investment is required for the lasting speculation in disparate forms of current assets. Thus, the management of working capital with respect to the private public sector business enterprises has been discussed taking the example cases of RINL TISCO. The sector for the comparison is the iron steel diligence as it can be observed from the companies taken into consideration. Some of the important characteristics established are the following: The summarization of variations in the actual quantity of the current assets is almost parallel for both the firms. Deployment of short term financing to meet the need of inventory or cash deficiency is almost alike in both the private public sector firms. These two sectors categorize the classes of the current assets current liabilities in a analogous arrangement. The sales revenues are enhanced by increased effectiveness in the organization of the working capital. The profitability and retained earnings consequently dividends rewarded to the companys shareholders are enhanced by proper administration of working capital. Based on the above inferences, it can said strongly that the working capital management policies of private sector enterprises are different than that of the public sector enterprises. SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSION Working capital basically refers to the money value difference between the current assets the current assets of a firm. It is equal to Net Working Capital. Some of the financial analysts like to consider just the current assets which include cash marketable securities, inventory the receivables. The administration enforced deployed by the firm to manage the current assets the actual financing needed by the firm to support the present needs is referred to as Working Capital Management. The research was an attempt to compare the working capital management of private sector and public sector business enterprises. The disclosure of factors which are responsible for formation of a disparity in the management of the current assets and liabilities between the private the public sector business enterprises is a genuinely multifaceted charge. The decision making prototypes at the various stages are quite different for the two. Also, the organisational culture, the working environme nt and atmosphere vary to a great degree when the two enterprise segments are compared. Thus, these impacts can be studied from the operational activities. The actual model of deployment of the current assets and the management of current liabilities varies when the two sector enterprises are simultaneously compared. The analysis is limited to the iron steel industry segment in India. TISCO (Tata Iron Steel Company) and RINL (Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited) correspond to the private sector and the public sector enterprises respectively. The financial data was extorted from the annual reports published by the companies and through various financial portals like moneycontrol.com between the years 2006-07 and 2009-10. From the analysis conducted, it can be inferred that the management of working capital of both the private public sector firms is almost similar in the iron steel industry. Based on the above inferences, it can said strongly that the working capital management po licies of private sector enterprises are different than that of the public sector enterprises.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Importance of Determining a Students Learning Style...

What does learning style mean in general? Learning style is simply the different ways a person perceives and process information. Knowing your learning style helps you to understand why you look at certain things the way you do. It also helps you to figure out when and how to use your learning style effectively as well as incorporating other learning styles as well. The way people perceive information typically range from a concrete experience to an abstract experience. People who perceive concrete information are more hands on versus the people who perceive abstract information who are more of the people who take time to analyze and break down the situation. The way people process information by active experiment prefer to jump in and†¦show more content†¦It also helps to write down material that has been taught orally on paper because it is easier for me to process what I have heard well if I see it on paper. I benefit from different handouts as well as illustrations becau se it helps me to actually see a clear picture. I prefer to read alone, take notes and do hands-on activities in class to help me better understand the material. I had discovered some learning tips that have been helpful to increase my learning experience in other classes as well. In math, I find it helpful to take a lot of notes as well as write down many examples. This helps me because I can take a problem and find an example similar to the problem and figure out how to work it out because I have something guiding me in the right direction. I also find that pictures can be helpful as well because now I have a visual idea of how to better work a problem. In reading I find it easier to record my lectures. I have to hear the topic over and over again as see it to get a clear understanding of what it is asking me to do. Also pictures are very helpful as well because I am able to see exactly what is going on. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Issues Affecting U.S. Economy free essay sample

It is obvious that our economy is in turmoil, probably the worst it has been since the great depression. There is no specific reason that has led to the horrible state our economy is in, there are many reasons. Although our economy is slowly on the rise agai, there is still a lot to be done to get us back on track. We, as a country, are no longer producing enough goods. We are importing way more than we are exporting and this causes a huge problem. This is a major cause of why we are in debt and it also makes less American owned companies exist. This causes us to â€Å"produce less wealth and generate taxes. † This is also a reason why we have to borrow money, causing more debt. Now, our government must continue to borrow money to pay these debts. Another example of why we are in such a great debt is the war in Iraq. We will write a custom essay sample on Issues Affecting U.S. Economy or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page America has spent hundreds of billions of dollars already in the war with Iraq. â€Å"Conservatively estimated, the war bills already paid and obligated to be paid are $3. 2 trillion in constant dollars. A more reasonable estimate puts the number at nearly $4 trillion† To most people, this has been dubbed, â€Å"the endless war,† which means all we are going to continue to do is spend more money money, which is putting us in even more debt. Oil and gas are also a big reason our economy is suffering. â€Å"Oil has topped $108 a barrel, the highest price since 2008, and regular unleaded gasoline now goes for an average $3. 69 a gallon. † This causes the prices of gas to skyrocket and this limits the amount of drivers. It restricts us to spend money on gas as we did before because it is so expensive and doesn’t fit into our budget.

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Titanic Essay- the techniques used by James Cameron Essay Example

Titanic Essay- the techniques used by James Cameron Paper For this film to be a success, James Cameron, the director had to modernise it. He had to include all the aspects of a hit film, along with the attraction towards a wide audience. This he achieved by incorporating the well-known story of the unsinkable ship with the new and hottest stars. In theory the older generation was intrigued to see how Cameron interpreted the story, and the younger generation wanted to see the latest actors. The directors objective was to produce a film, based on the true story that would appeal to all age groups, particularly the younger generation. So Cameron used Leonardo DiCaprio to play the role of Jack, a young American living life as it comes making his own luck. He chose Leo to play this part because he was the latest heartthrob of teenaged girls across the nations and would there fore attract a vast majority of the targeted audience, for the male population, Kate Winslet the girl next door was cast as the young, fresh and rich Rose. The combination of the two up and coming stars was a sure hit teamed with the theme of love. Strength and skills they had acquired during previous roles made the actors work well together to produce a convincing and moving relationship. However the story needed to keep the realism of the true event which took place in 1912 yet have enough action, excitement and romance to keep the target audience interested for the record three and a half hour film. The director achieved this by using many different techniques of lighting, sound effects and camera angles. We will write a custom essay sample on Titanic Essay- the techniques used by James Cameron specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Titanic Essay- the techniques used by James Cameron specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Titanic Essay- the techniques used by James Cameron specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer By using many dramatic camera angles it is possible to involve the viewer in the scene as opposed to watching the film from a cinematic perspective. You are instantly drawn in to the scenery with the technique of panning. This is a wide shot of the scene, which slowly moves on a fixed point to allow the viewer to see the full atmosphere and action occurring around that point. Using different camera angles helps to create the affect of where the actor/ actress is. For example, to establish the background behind a character, a long shot is appropriate. This was used in such a scene as the opening view of the ship, because Cameron wanted to convey the true size of the masterpiece. However to get the most dramatic effect of action, a wide angle shot would work better because this will focus on the characters, and the mood of their surroundings. This was used when Jack is seen playing cards in the bar on the dockhands, with titanic visible through the window. Denotation and Conotation were also used to show the symbolism of the images, and what they suggest. The way in which Cameron managed to persuade the audience that they were within the scene, added emotion and realism to the production, concentrating on a particular subject at each time as not to lose the attention of the viewers. The use of romantic, slow calming music allowed the viewer to unknowingly become emotionally involved in the scenes. This, combined with the techniques used on the camera angles and the stunning computer graphics, made the whole film come together. Cameron kept an element of truth in the story by using Rose who was a real survivor from the sinking ship, but put the fire in to it by introducing a fictional character her lover, Jack. The shots and camera angles used presented a good example of denotation, conotation, wide angle and long shots. A long shot was used when Rose is in immense confusion about her life and decides to try and end it by jumping off the back of the ship one evening. The camera shot used to open this scene was a wide shot of Rose running away from the banquet at which she had been in an argument with her fianci. To show the full size of the ship Cameron used a panning wide angle shot. This is most effective because as the shot zooms in to where rose is situated on the half a mile long boat, you begin to grasp the vast size of the vessel in comparison with the tiny figure. As we follow Rose running from the middle of the ship, up and down stairs until she reaches the bow, and comes to an abrupt halt against railings, here a close up view of her is used to show how upset and out of breath she is which relates her to the audience because we understand her pain, emotionally and physically. As Rose decides what to do, we see through her perspective as she looks at the railings on the bow of the ship. Slow sad Irish music plays softly in the background, adding real empathy to her character. When Rose is hanging off the back of the ship, a close shot is again used from the perspective of Rose looking up at jacks face. This is used to show the strength and effort that Jack is putting into pulling Rose over the edge on to the safety of the decks. A similar camera angle is used from Jacks perspective, this time to show the fear and anguish in Roses face and the ferocious, churning and freezing water below her kicking legs. The traditional method of using foreground, middle ground and background to fool the viewer into believing an object is larger than it actually is, was used throughout the film along with the horizontal, wide screens and vertical shots to create atmosphere. Perhaps the most atmospheric device Cameron used was the music and sound effects, without which the film would not seem as intense, action packed or emotional. He used a wide variety of Irish and country music typical of the era in which the film is set to portray the large number of Irish passengers travelling in third class to America, to seek a better life there. Cameron wanted to show how strong this community was by convincing the audience that no matter how poor the conditions were on the third class decks, it was still possible to have fun. He did this by showing a scene in which Rose (a first class passenger) goes below decks to a third class passenger party as guest of Jack. She soon finds that there is no need for money to enjoy them self as the roar of the Irish jig and the lively atmosphere sweeps her into the mass of dancing bodies. The theme of the music is continued throughout the film but the tempo, style or rhythm is changed. Celine Dion had the hit single My heart will go on is famous for the scene in which Jack and Rose are standing on the front of the ship; Jack behind Rose holding out her arms to make her feel like she is flying. This signifying the bonding between the two lovers and their trust. The costumes also contributed towards the meaning of the film as they reflected class division in the era in which the disaster of Titanic took place. There was a pronounced division between first class and third class passengers. Therefore the difference between the main characters was very obvious Jack was third class and Rose was first class. The costumes were accurately researched for the wealthy people of that period. For example, the first class wore colourful bright and clean clothes, which were changed each day. They had such luxuries, as smart dresses, suits and maids to dress them, whereas the third class did not even own the soap to wash with and dressed in dirty drab torn clothes. The comparison between the two is very prominent when Rose joins the third class party below decks as she is in clean, clothing and the other passengers are in dark, melancholy colours. This would suggest Rose is better off than they are and perhaps brought up better, but this is proven not to be so when she joins the lads in a beer and proves she is not just an upper classed snob. James Cameron showed the differences between the classes continuously throughout the film from the opening scene of Jack and a friend gambling for their ticket on the ship compared to Rose arriving by motor car, well dressed with servants to carry every thing for her. Once on board the ship is divided in to different sections for the classes, third not allowed to enter 1st class areas. This is shown when a porter is walking a dog belonging to a first class passenger, and he takes it to the third class decks to let it go to the toilet. An Irish friend of Jacks makes the comment that it is typical that they get treated like that. Perhaps the worst comparison made between the classes is when the ship has hit the ice burg and is rapidly sinking. The lower decks are flooding and the third class passengers are locked down there to stop them from getting in the life boats before the first class passengers have got in. This is a sad prospect that humans could do that to one another. This is now open to debate by historians as to weather it really happened that way. Again Cameron used the key elements of a film angles, lighting and sound to make the sinking of the ship as realistic and horrific as possible. The viewer does not gain an idea of how huge the ship is until a long shot is used as the ship is going down. As all the life boats row away and people jump in to the water u can really see the true size of Titanic-the unsinkable ship of dreams. Cameron managed to link the lighting to the beats and thrills of the music building a climax and sense of fear and evasion. The cool lighting used in the scenes after the tragedy created a sad blue and cold atmosphere, which follows on to Rose, as an old lady, revisiting the memories. This created a stark contrast to her dream that night of revisiting the ship of dreams as a warm friendly glow is created with soft angelic lighting. The theme tune is slowed down and Rose appears, surrounded by her friends family and loved ones. A panning shot curves round the room in which she and Jack first met to reveal the smiling applauding faces. Soft lighting combined with the music symbolises happiness and purity suggesting that Rose, as an old lady fell asleep and died in her dreams that night, a happy contented woman, having returned the heart of the ocean.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Learn About Italian Easter Traditions and Customs

Learn About Italian Easter Traditions and Customs A huge explosion will be detonated Easter Sunday in front of the magnificent green– and white–marbled neogothic church in Florences centro storico. Instead of running in fear from a terrorists bomb, though, thousands of spectators will cheer the noise and smoke, for they will be witnesses to the annual Scoppio del Carro- explosion of the cart. For over 300 years the Easter celebration in Florence has included this ritual, during which an elaborate wagon, a structure built in 1679 and standing two to three stories high, is dragged through Florence behind a fleet of white oxen decorated in garlands. The pageantry ends in front of the Basilica di S. Maria del Fiore, where Mass is held. During the midday service, a holy fire is stoked by ancient stone chips from the Holy Sepulcher, and the Archbishop lights a dove–shaped rocket which travels down a wire and collides with the cart in the square, setting off spectacular fireworks and explosions to the cheers of all. A big bang ensures a good harvest, and a parade in medieval costume follows. Tradition and ritual play a strong role in Italian culture, especially during celebrations such as Easter, the Christian holiday based on the pagan festival called Eostur-Monath. No matter what date Easter falls on, there are many ceremonies and culinary customs that are religiously upheld. Some traditions are regional, for instance the art of palm weaving, in which decorative crosses and other designs are created from the palms received on Palm Sunday. Easter Ceremonies in Italy At Vatican City there are a series of solemn events that culminate in Easter Sunday Mass. During the spring holy days that center around the vernal equinox there are also many other rites practiced throughout the country that have their roots in historic pagan rituals. In addition, the Monday following Easter is an official Italian holiday called la Pasquetta, so if traveling be prepared for another day of repose. Tredozio On Easter Monday the Palio dellUovo is a competition where eggs are the stars of the games. Merano The Corse Rusticane are conducted, fascinating races with a special breed of horses famous for their blonde manes ridden by youths wearing the local costumes of their towns. Before the race, the participants parade through the streets of the town followed by a band and folk dance groups. Barano dIschia On Easter Monday the Ndrezzata takes place- a dance which revives the fights against the Saracens. Carovigno On the Saturday before Easter is a procession dedicated to the Madonna del Belvedere during which the Nzeghe contest takes place: banners must be hurled as far as possible. Enna Religious rites dating back to the Spanish domination (fifteenth through seventeenth century) take place in this Sicilian town. On Good Friday, the different religious confraternities gather around the main church and over 2,000 friars wearing ancient costumes silently parade through the streets of the city. On Easter Sunday, the Paci ceremony takes place: the statue of the Virgin and that of Jesus Christ are first taken to the main square and then into the church where they stay for a week. Easter Dining In Italy, the expression Natale con i tuoi, Pasqua con chi vuoi is frequently heard (Christmas with your family, Easter with your own choice of friends). Oftentimes, this implies sitting down to a dinner that starts with minestra di Pasqua, the traditional beginning of the Neapolitan Easter meal. Other classic Easter recipes include carciofi fritti (fried artichokes), a main course of either capretto o agnellino al forno (roasted goat or baby lamb) or capretto cacio e uova (kid stewed with cheese, peas, and eggs), and carciofi e patate soffritti, a delicious vegetable side dish of sautà ©ed artichokes with baby potatoes. A holiday meal in Italy would not be complete without a traditional dessert, and during Easter there are several. Italian children finish their dinner with a rich bread shaped like a crown and studded with colored Easter egg candies. La pastiera Napoletana, the classic Neapolitan grain pie, is a centuries–old dish with innumerable versions, each made according to a closely guarded family recipe. Another treat is the  Colomba cake, a sweet, eggy, yeasted bread (like panettone plus candied orange peel, minus the raisins, and topped with sugared and sliced almonds) shaped in one of the most recognizable symbols of Easter, the dove. The Colomba cake takes on this form precisely because  la colomba  in Italian means dove, the symbol of peace and an appropriate finish to Easter dinner. Uova di Pasqua Although Italians do not decorate hard–boiled eggs nor have chocolate bunnies or pastel marshmallow chicks, the biggest Easter displays in bars, pastry shops, supermarkets, and especially at chocolatiers are brightly wrapped  uova di Pasqua- chocolate Easter eggs- in sizes that range from 10 grams (1/3 ounce) to 8 kilos (nearly 18 pounds). Most of them are made of milk chocolate in a mid–range, 10–ounce size by industrial chocolate makers. Some producers distinguish between their chocolate eggs for children (sales numbers are a closely guarded secret, but the market for these standard quality eggs is said to be shrinking with Italys birthrate) and expensive adult versions. All except the tiniest eggs contain a surprise. Grown–ups often find their eggs contain little silver picture frames or gold–dipped costume jewelry. The very best eggs are handmade by artisans of chocolate, who offer the service of inserting a surprise supplied by the purchaser. Car keys, engagement rings, and watches are some of the high–end gifts that have been tucked into Italian chocolate eggs in Italy. Italian Easter Vocabulary List Click to hear the highlighted word spoken by a native speaker. lagnello- lambBuona Pasqua- Happy Easteril coniglietto- bunny rabbitla crocifissione- Crucifixionla pace- peacela Pasquetta- Easter Mondayla primavera- springla resurrezione- Resurrectionla settimana santa- Holy WeeklUltima Cena- Last Supperle uova- eggsVenerdà ¬ Santo- Holy Friday

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Hume & Schumacher Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Hume & Schumacher - Essay Example In this research, philosophy has come to play a very critical role in the understanding of human life. It finds its applicability from simple life questions such as the definition of terms to more complex debates about the ultimate purpose of life as well as what is real and what is vague. One of the greatest philosophers ever seen in history was David Hume (1711-1776). His essays and publications are now used by scholars both in Philosophy and other academic disciplines. The purpose of this paper is to examine his views and arguments from the viewpoint of another great philosopher, Schumacher, E.F (1911-1977). David Hume is regarded as one of the greatest philosophers to have ever lived. His essays, Moral, Political and Literary are recognized as a great contribution to the 18th Century Philosophy and the succeeding years. Similarly, several outstanding philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jeremy Bentham have confessed being directly influenced by his works. Similarly, Charles Dar win attested to Hume as a central influence (Hume 34). Hume is honored for having written in probably every branch of Philosopher but more so in the area of human science. Some critics have referred to him as ‘our politics, religion and also our economy’. ... Regarding cause and effect, or causality, he believes that, as all humans do, that there is no event without a cause, and that this conception is inborn, not taught, or induced in to us. Referring to his predecessors, Hume questions what the relationship between cause and effect really means (Guyer 26). By giving real life examples, he concludes that our perception of connecting two events is not based on a close scrutiny but by the closeness of the two events. He states that it is impossible to experience the connection between the two events. We only experience the events themselves but not the actual causing. Therefore, this causal theory is a mere construct in our minds without any absolute foundation on experience. If his view is correct, many scientists, who consider themselves as searching for causes, would need to redefine themselves. Secondly, Hume debates the existence of the self. The ancient example of a ship tied to a harbor where families brought their children to play on the decks rouses a question. After many years of aging, several parts of the ship, and finally, every single chip of the ship are replaced, such that there is nothing left of the original ship. A question rises on the originality of that ship, on whether the sign on the ship should read, â€Å"This is the famous ship which fought many battles†, or â€Å"this is a replica of that ship†. One would conclude that it is the same ship since its identity has remained unchanged over the years. Similarly, Biology teaches that every molecule of the body is replaced after 7 years (Schumacher 19). Yet after those years, we still maintain our identity and even given the different experiences we go through, we