Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Divorce Rate Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Divorce Rate - Essay Example If the custody battle occurred when the child is your research shows that by adolescence children begin to fanaticize that their parents get back together, often in a fairytale way and they all live happily ever after. The earlier abuse is minimized or not thought about. By adolescence these children show the same symptoms of divorce as other children experience, difficulty making decisions, difficulty in relationships, more susceptible to depression and higher degree of acting out including the use of alcohol and drugs (Johnson, 2004) From the parents perspective custody battles ensue for many reasons but most involve the inability to problem solve how to fulfill the child’s parenting needs from two locations. Every child, male or female, need two parents but to provide that parents must work together. One theory says one of the reasons parents can not work together is because they are taking out their anger toward the spouse in the custody battle. Another theory is that one parent feels they can not trust the other. This often occurs when on parent has been unfaithful in the marriage or has been neglectful in the marriage (Booth 2001). In any case a custody battle generally involved a failed attempt at mediation. It then moves into the legal realm which is likely to involve a custody evaluation of both parents either by a social worker, a guardian adlitum or a psychologist of all three. When everyone’s reports are finished, which can take months and involves multiple interviews with the children, family members and the parents and financial information is usually also included, the case is brought before a judge. The judge then hears from all the professionals involved, both parents and the children if they are old enough. The average contested hearing is from two to three days. At the present time, joint custody or 50/50 custody is the most common ruling( Amato & Sobolewski, 2001 & 2005). All of this has

Monday, October 28, 2019

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Essay Example for Free

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Essay Gertrude becomes shocked at what Hamlet has just done Oh me, what hast thou done? here she stands in shock. Gertrude cannot really believe that her own son has committed a ruthless murder. This can be interpreted by Gertrude holding her head in her hands and not wanting to look at Hamlet or the dead body of Polonius. Hamlet tells Gertrude what Claudius has done A bloody deed? Almost as bad, good mother, as kill a king and marry with his brother, she does not want to believe Hamlet as she says, As kill a king? Hamlet on the other hand looks at Polonius as a wretched, rash, intruding fool he pities Polonius. This is because he has always tried to get to the top by methods that have not always proved successful or helpful by indirections find directions out. Now Hamlet turns on Gertrude, he forces her down again and accuses her of having no sense of feeling If damni d custom have not brazed it so, that it be proof and bulwark against sense. He also accuses her of not knowing the meaning of marriage vows makes marriage vows as false as dicers oaths. He then compares the two husbands. He does this to show to Gertrude what she had and what she has now so she sees what a big mistake she made by marring Claudius and not seeing his true self. Hamlet regards his father as one of the Gods Hyperions curls, the front of Jove himself, an eye like Mars, to threaten and command; a station like the herald Mercury he also says where every god did seem to set his seal. Followed by him talking about Claudius like a mildewed ear. Like in many publications Hamlet will have the picture of King Hamlet around his neck in a locket and Gertrude will have the picture of Claudius around her neck in a similar fashion. Afterwards he begins to insult Gertrude about her inability to be in command of her sexual desires. Many people believe that Hamlet is so malevolent towards Ophelia because Hamlet sees Gertrude having no control over her life so he thinks that all women are like that and cannot make up their minds. Another reason is that he subconsciously loves his mother and cannot commit in another relationship. At this point Gertrude realises what she has done Thou turnst my eyes into my very soul, and there I see such black and grainid spots as will not leave their tinct. However she does not want to hear any more and repeatedly tells him to stop Oh speak to me no more. These words like daggers enter my ears . daggers is a reoccurring theme as in Act 3 Scene 3 he says I will speak daggers to her but use none. So in actual fact he achieved his goal. When the ghost appears Hamlet goes quiet and speaks peacefully. He does this as he looks up to and respects his father also he is still quite scared of him even though it is his father it is still a ghost. Additionally Hamlet is worried what it might do to him because Hamlet has been offensive toward his mother, which was not part of the plan. The ghost is dressed in armour, as he was when he was living. The ghost reminds Hamlet of his purpose and tells him to comfort Gertrude This visitation is but to whet thy almost blunted purpose. But look, amazement on thy mother sits. Oh step between her and her fighting soul the ghost says this quietly, almost whispering. This statement shows that even though Gertrude married so soon after his death, King Hamlet still cares for her. Immediately after Hamlet comforts her and asks how she is doing, his tone of voice changes completely as if something just wash over him. Very confused by what just happened she asks Hamlet Wheron do you look? this could imply that Gertrude does not care as much for King Hamlet as Hamlet as she cannot see King Hamlet. It could also mean that King Hamlet would rather not appear before of Gertrude, as he still loves her and would not want to startle or upset her. Hamlet eventually convinces Gertrude that in reality he is not mad and asks for her forgiveness. He does this as he feels, on reflection of what the ghost said, that he was very harsh to Gertrude, also he upset her and is afraid of the ghost. Hamlet subsequently requests Gertrude not to sleep with Claudius and tell him about the conversation and his antic disposition. He threatens Gertrude and becomes quite aggressive again but not as much, Gertrude again becomes a little scared of Hamlet. Gertrude subsequently reassured Hamlet that she would not say anything I have no life to breathe what though hast said to me. Hamlet reveals his plot to kill Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. He tells her this as he feels that she is on his side and he would like to remain as honest and loyal as possible to her. At this point Gertrude has been through so much she does not really take this in and so does not make much of a reaction. The scene ends with Hamlet dragging Polonius body out of the room leaving Gertrude in a solitary moment. The lights dim all is quiet and all that is heard is the rain and the scene will end with a flash of lightning and a clap of thunder. This scene prepares us for what is to come as it gives us an insight into what Hamlet is capable of. Additionally this is the first time a murder has taken place besides King Hamlets murder. This scene contains so many emotions that it is practically a play itself. I believe that the Branagh production worked the best as there was much more emphasis on the important parts of the scene although there was too much violence when killing Polonius. Also Gertrude does more to get away from Hamlet in this film than the others do as she turns away much more when he talks to her about Claudius and her failure to control her sexual feelings. His production also had more emotion to it and showed what was happening much more clearly. This play has proved so popular through the ages as it contains something for everyone, as it ranges from romance to murder. Furthermore everyone can relate to it as it has many components of real life situated within the play, this made it, and made it stay so popular. There is also much more room to interpret the script so every time you see Hamlet performed by a different company you can be assured that you will get a new play each time.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The Language of Male Supremacy in She and The Sign of Four Essay

The Language of Male Supremacy in She and The Sign of Four These days we have to be extremely careful when we write or speak.   In fact, at times it seems as if we must communicate as if tip toeing through a veritable minefield of the dangerous misinterpretations of our words.   Since many words and phrases can be construed or misconstrued as offensive, there is a heightened sensitivity to the use of language.   This is not necessarily a bad thing.   We certainly need to live in world where all people are treated with dignity and respect, and our use of language should reflect this ideal.   Most of us would not intentionally offend a person from a different race, culture, or creed, but the problem today is that there is such a subsurface tension that rage occasionally erupts over anything that even remotely resembles the offensive.   Where does this social extremism that condemns even ambiguous statements come from?   Things were not always this way.   If we were to look deeper into the history of the English language, we would typically find outlandish words and phrases that debased women and members of other cultures.   These expressions may not necessarily have been malicious in spirit in all instances, but they were certainly demeaning and ranged from the subtle to the intentional.   Certainly, some of the phrases that were commonly printed then would be socially unacceptable to print today.   For example, any representative sample of late Victorian literature will reveal misogynistic and racist remarks by contemporary standards. In fairness to the Victorians, the world was going through a rapid state of change then, and England was leading the way.   Part of the motivation behind the imperialistic ende... ...winism dramatically changed the way many people thought then, our modern ideas of cultural diversity and gender egalitarianism have changed the way many people think today.   Our modern language clearly reflects this change.   We have come a long way in disregarding boldly offensive descriptions, to questioning the propriety of statements such as "You people."   Some people have eager ears that are always ready to latch onto the next faux pas and have clenched fists that are ready to gaff their next victim.   Therefore, a masked tension remains, but on a lighter note, the positive force that guides our present evolving world in which we are conscientiously laboring to temper our language with human dignity balances this tension.   Yet, our language can only be truly dignified to the degree to which it preserves the dignity of all of whom it dares to describe.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Customize Mobile Services (CMS) †Creating and Personalizing your Plans

In a world where technology plays a vital role, mobile phone becomes not just a luxury but more of a necessity. More than calls and messages, we are about thoughts, feelings, ideas in all shapes and sizes, more than just building your business we are about creating your future. Our goal is to transform and enrich lives through communications by way of our dream of making great things possible. The idea of choosing the best plans that will suit to your needs and budget is as easy as snap of a finger. (1) What are the types of services that you offer? CMS offers services but we sell solutions. We are a solution provider. You can either choose between business package and consumer plans. To give you an example, for business plan we have Executive Post Paid, allows you to run the business wherever you maybe. On top of the unlimited calls, you will be equipped with the services such as free text messaging, unlimited internet surfing and downloads that will make your business on the go. For consumer, we will let you decide on the bucket of minutes that you think you consume on monthly basis. From lowest to highest to unlimited calling and sending messages, you can customize it. (2) Is there any add ons? Yes, personalize your mobile phone. Put anything you need on it. Sending pictures, surfing the net, money transfer, voice command, online chatting, long distance call and down load games and ring tones. (3) What if I want to cancel my add ons, is that possible? How can I do that? We have a test drive period of 30 days, for you to be able to check and know the services that will be beneficial for you. If you don’t need, cancel it. (4) Is there a contract? We are looking forward in building a harmonious relationship with our subscribers, thus, we do not bind you to any terms however we guarantee a long time commitment in all we do. There will be no contract and no obligations however if there is one thing we are capable of giving, it is the quality of having us as your provider. (5) Another providers allow me to exceed my limit, I sometimes do not control myself in using my phone, is there any way you can help me with that? Positively yes, aside from the fact that you can choose your own plans, you will also receive a weekly reminder through SMS the current status of your plan, our operator will call you if you are near in exceeding your limits in this way you will be able to know where you stand and you have the option to stop all the services and have it resume on your next billing cycle to avoid paying extra charges. (6) I am a businessman and I don’t have time to fall in line just to pay my bills, what are my means to pay it? You can either pay through your credit card online or you can call our toll free number to enroll you in automatic billing debited. (7) What's in it for me? CMS gives you the worth of your money, we let you get connected to your family members, friends and loved one's without getting over charged. We provide nothing but the best when it comes to mobile technology. Being hip, trendy and in fashion doesn’t always mean costing too much. In fact CMS (Customize Mobile Services) delivers in to you in a complete package wrap in an amazing OPTIONS and CHOICES.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019


TUTORIAL 3: FUNCTIONS Problem 1: For f( x) = 2Ãâ€"2+ 5x+3 and g(x) = 4x+1 find the following a) (f+g)(x) b) (f-g)(x) c) (f. g)(x) d) (f/g)(x) e) f0g(x) Problem 2: The number N of cars produced at a certain factory in 1 day after t hours of operation is given by N(t) = l00t- 5t2, 0? t? 10. If the cost C (in dollars) of producing N cars is C(N) = 15,000 + 8,000N, find the cost C as a function of the time t of operation of the factory. Problem 3: Find the inverse of the following functions. a) f(x) = 2x-3 ) f(x) = x3-1 c) f(x) = x2-1 Graph f, f-1 , and y = x on the same coordinate axes. Problem 4: The price p, in dollars, of a Honda Civic DX Sedan that is x years old is given by p(x) = 16,630(0. 90)x a) How much does a 3-year-old Civic DX Sedan cost? b) How much does a 9-year-old Civic DX Sedan cost? Problem 5: When you drive an Ace Rental compact car x kilometers in a day, the company charge f(x) dollars, where Describe Ace Rental’s pricing policy in plain English. (Be sure to interpret the constants 30, 0. 7, and 100 that appear in the pricing formula) Problem 6: For the following demand and supply functions of a product, state the economically sensible ranges of price and quantity for which they are defined. Draw the market diagram for this product. What are the equilibrium price and quantity? QD = 16 – 2p QS = -4 + 3p Problem 7: Consider the following demand and supply functions for a product. q = 500 -10p and q = -100+5p a) Find the inverse demand function and the inverse supply function. b) Draw the market diagram for this product. c) Find the equilibrium price and quantity. TUTORIAL 4: SEQUENCES, SERIES, LIMITSProblem 1: Write down the first five terms of the following sequences 1n;n-1n;12n Problem 2: Determine the convergence or divergence of the following sequences 1n;n-1n;12n Problem 3: Compute the following limits 1)limn>? n2-2n+32n2-1 2)limn>? -2n+32n2-1 3)limn>? (n+25-n) Problem 4: Determine the convergence or divergence of the followin g series. 1)n=1? 25n-1 2) n=1? 1n3n 3) n=1? 13n Problem 5: Determine the sum of the following geometric series, when they are convergent. 1)1+16+162+163+†¦. 2)1+123+126+129+†¦. 3)132-134+136 – †¦. 4)1+326+3462+3663+†¦. Problem 6: 29(577) Problem 7: 33(577)

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The Arab American Heritage Month

The Arab American Heritage Month Arab Americans and Americans of Middle Eastern heritage have a long history in the United States. They are U.S. military heroes, entertainers, politicians and scientists. They are Lebanese, Egyptian, Iraqi and more. Yet the representation of Arab Americans in the mainstream media tends to be quite limited. Arabs are typically featured on the news when Islam, hate crimes or terrorism are the topics at hand. Arab American Heritage Month, observed in April, marks a time to reflect on the contributions Arab Americans have made to the U.S. and the diverse group of people who make up the nation’s Middle Eastern population. Arab Immigration to the U.S. While Arab Americans are often stereotyped as perpetual foreigners in the United States, people of Middle Eastern descent first began to enter the country in significant numbers in the 1800s, a fact thats often revisited during Arab American Heritage Month. The first wave of Middle Eastern immigrants arrived in the U.S. circa 1875, according to The second wave of such immigrants arrived after 1940. The Arab American Institute reports that by the 1960s, about 15,000 Middle Eastern immigrants from Egypt, Jordan, Palestine, and Iraq were settling in the U.S. on average each year. By the following decade, the annual number of Arab immigrants increased by several thousand due to the Lebanese civil war. Arab Americans in the 21st Century Today an estimated 4 million Arab Americans live in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau estimated in 2000 that Lebanese Americans constitute the largest group of Arabs in the U.S. About one in four of all Arab Americans is Lebanese. The Lebanese are followed by Egyptians, Syrians, Palestinians, Jordanians, Moroccans, and Iraqis in numbers. Nearly half (46 percent) of the Arab Americans profiled by the Census Bureau in 2000 were born in the U.S. The Census Bureau also found that more men make up the Arab population in the U.S. than women and that most Arab Americans lived in households occupied by married couples. While the first Arab-American immigrants arrived in the 1800s, the Census Bureau found that nearly half of Arab Americans arrived in the U.S. in the 1990s. Regardless of these new arrivals, 75 percent of Arab Americans said that they spoke English very well or exclusively while at home. Arab Americans also tend to be more educated than the general population, with 41 percent having graduated from college compared to 24 percent of the general U.S. population in 2000. The higher levels of education obtained by Arab Americans explains why members of this population were more likely to work in professional jobs and earn more money than Americans generally. On the other hand, more Arab-American men than women were involved in the labor force and a higher number of Arab Americans (17 percent) than Americans generally (12 percent) were likely to live in poverty. Census Representation It’s difficult to get a complete picture of the Arab-American population for Arab American Heritage Month because the U.S. government has classified people of Middle Eastern descent as â€Å"white† since 1970. This has made it challenging to get an accurate count of Arab Americans in the U.S. and to determine how members of this population are faring economically, academically and so forth. The Arab American Institute has reportedly told its members to identify as â€Å"some other race† and then fill in their ethnicity. There’s also a movement to have the Census Bureau give the Middle Eastern population a unique category by the 2020 census. Aref Assaf supported this move in a column for the New Jersey Star-Ledger. â€Å"As Arab-Americans, we have long argued for the need to implement these changes,† he said. â€Å"We have long argued that current racial options available on the Census form produce a severe undercount of Arab Americans. The current Census form is only a ten question form, but the implications for our community are far-reaching†¦Ã¢â‚¬ 

Monday, October 21, 2019

“Stargirl” by Jerry Spinelli Essays

â€Å"Stargirl† by Jerry Spinelli Essays â€Å"Stargirl† by Jerry Spinelli Essay â€Å"Stargirl† by Jerry Spinelli Essay The novel â€Å"Stargirl† by Jerry Spinelli is a wonderful and exciting story about the girl who manages to overcome difficulties and pressures at American high school. Stargirl is the main character who is ignoring public pressures and disapproval, whereas her boyfriend Leo isn’t. Susan is unique and beats a different drummer in this life. She becomes a whirlwind in a common high school in Arizona. She dresses like Victorian bride and nobody knows what to make of her. Her new name â€Å"Stargirl† passes her more than Susan as it underlines her true personality and originality: â€Å"And just like that, Stargirl was gone, replaced with Susan. Susan Julie Caraway. The girl she might have been all along†. Stargirl wear what she wants and does things she likes. Moreover, her pet mouse Cinnamon always accompanies her. Stargirl is unaware of public disapproval and judgmental opinions of other students and people. The novel raises the problem of loneliness and isolation caused by different behavioral patterns. Stargirl starts dating with Leo, who finds out that she is absolutely real despite her original style. Stargirl shows his the concepts and ideas he has never come across with. Stargirl loves life and people, but people don’t understand her. However, she is excluded from society and Leo undergoes social exclusion so, but he fails to cope with loneliness and pulls back from Stargirl. In such a way the author shows that public opinion is more important for some people than human personality. Susan leaves the city being not accepted at school, though with years her influence is felt. The novel shows that people shouldn’t lose their sense of wonder, unique way of self-expression.   People should be more kind towards each other. Summing up, the novel raises the themes of morality, friendship, love and social exclusion caused by â€Å"not similarity†. Moreover, the author underlines such human qualities as kindness, ability to resist public hostility, and to express true personality.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

34 Important SEO Tips You Need To Know Now - CoSchedule

34 Important SEO Tips You Need To Know Now Search engine optimization often seems  like magic  to newcomers. The elements of a strong SEO strategy often arent obvious  to an untrained eye. However, once you understand how  the basics work, you can: Dramatically increase your organic search traffic Increase your conversion rate Generate more leads and revenue Despite rumors to the contrary, SEO isnt dead. Furthermore, even the best content needs some help getting found. Thats where these 34 SEO tips will come in handy. Whether youre a beginner just getting started, or an expert looking for a quick refresher, this post provides a basic understanding of the most essential elements necessary for SEO success. Plus, weve also included an on-page SEO checklist to help you  nail every blog post you write. Table of Contents: 6  Tips On How To Do Keyword Research 2 SEO Meta Tag Formatting Tips For Optimal Search Snippets 7 SEO Writing Tips To Create Better Content 4 Image SEO Tips 3  Internal Linking Tips To Avoid Over-Optimization 5 Simple Link Building Tips 4 Additional WordPress SEO Tips 3 Tips For Measuring SEO Success Resources For Further Learning Why Is SEO Important? You may have heard rumblings that SEO is an outdated practice. You might have even heard that basic search engine optimization is completely unnecessary in 2016. However, this couldn't be further from the truth. In fact,  SEO is as important as ever. Furthermore, if you're not paying attention, you might  not be getting all the traffic you could be.  While search engine algorithms and SEO best practices are constantly evolving, it's still important to know the basics and not rely on luck to get your content to rank. That's where the following tips come in hand. 6 Tips On How To Do Keyword Research Keywords are essential to  any sound SEO campaign. Search engines need them to understand what your post is about. Users need them to help find answers to their questions. Your goal is to create great resources  that answers common search queries. Tip 1: Learn How To Use The Google Adwords Keyword Planner The Google Adwords Keyword Planner is every marketer's trusted warhorse for keyword research. It's useful for uncovering  keyword search volumes and generating additional keyword ideas.  Check out this video below to see how it works: Tip 2: Use's Free Keyword Research Database We love this free keyword tool from It's fast, effective, and incredibly easy to use. Here's how it works: Go to the Keyword Research Database. Enter a keyword and click "search": It's as simple as that. Tip 3: Use  SEMRush To Gauge Keyword Difficulty If you have a paid Moz subscription, then you know how useful their Keyword Difficulty tool can be. However, what if you can't afford a premium SEO software suite? Enter SEMRush. While they do offer paid plans, you can easily use their Keyword Difficulty tool with a free subscription: 1.   Sign up for a free SEMRush account. 2. Find Keyword Difficulty in the left-hand navigation. 3.  Enter  keywords you'd like to check (up to 10 at a time) BONUS TIP: Choosing effective keywords requires strategy. If your blog is new, it may be better to target keywords with low competition (under 50%), even if they don't have high  search volume. However, if your blog is well established, consider ignoring keywords with less than 500 - 1000 monthly searches. Tip 4: Use The Keyword Planner For Competitive Research We've covered how Google's Keyword Planner is useful for gauging keyword search volumes. However, you can also use it to generate keyword ideas based on your competition. 1. Start with a fresh search for keywords based on a website: 2.  Enter a competitor's domain or landing page URL to use as a basis for keyword ideas: 3. You have now generated tons of keyword ideas based on what your competitor could potentially target. Consider going after these keywords before they do, or check to see if they're already ranking on these terms. Tip 5: Use SEMRush To Find Your Competitor's Top Keywords SEMRush is another useful tool for uncovering  competitor's keywords. 1.  Log into your account and click on Organic Research: 2.  Enter a domain and see which keywords it's ranking for: Using this process, you might be able to find keywords you wouldn't have thought to  target. Are you doing #keyword #research the right way? Tip 6: Find And Incorporate LSI Keywords Sometimes, people use different terms to search for the same thing. Google and other search engines know this. In order to deliver the best user experience, their technology needs to serve up results that match not only keywords, but the intent behind those keywords. Latent semantic indexing (LSI) refers to the algorithmic technology that helps search engines understand the relationships between different but similar keywords. LSI keywords, then, are search terms that may mean the same thing, or are closely related to one another. The LSI Keyword Generator makes it easy to find these keywords fast. Enter a keyword, and it'll return a list of related terms to weave into your content. Feeling lost? That's okay. We've written an entire post on LSI keyword research that should help. Plus, we'll talk more about how to implement these keywords in a few moments. Back To Table Of Contents 2  SEO Meta Tag  Formatting  Tips For Optimal  Search Snippets Meta tags are snippets of text that exist in your website or blog's code. According to Search Engine Watch: HTML meta tags are officially page data tags that lie between the open and closing head tags in the HTML code of a document.  The text in these tags is not displayed, but parsable and tells the browsers (or other web services) specific information about the page. Simply, it â€Å"explains† the page so a browser can understand it. There are two meta tags  you need to customize for every post on your blog. They are the title tag and the meta description tag. The title tag tells users and search engines what your web page is about.  Meanwhile, the meta description tag provides readers with more information about your page. Both are displayed in search engine result pages (SERPs). The title tag tells users and search engines what your web page is about. #SEOHere is what they look like in the search results: Tip 7: Know How To Write Strong Title Tags There are three essential elements (plus one that's optional) to writing a quality title tag: They should be no more than 70 characters long (as of May 2016). Google will cut off anything longer than this length. They should include your post's primary keyword as far to the left as possible. We'll touch on keywords a bit more in a few moments. They should include some type of value proposition (if appropriate) to entice users to click. Additionally, you may want to include your blog or company name  at the end. This can help reinforce your brand in SERPs, but it also takes up space. Tip 8: Know How To Write Strong Meta Descriptions Meta tags should give readers a reason to click your search result. Think of them as ad copy for your blog post. Here are a few important technical items to remember when writing meta descriptions: They should be no more than 156 characters long. Once again, Google will truncate anything over this length. However, they should be long enough to provide a useful description of your post. They should include your primary keyword. Even though meta descriptions don't impact rankings, including your keyword helps reinforce what your page is about to readers. BONUS TIP: Want to see what your title tag and meta description will look like before publishing? Use a free online SERP preview tool. Here are three different options: Portent's SERP Preview Tool Moz Title Tag Preview Tool Content Forest SERP Preview Tool A SERP preview tool can be useful for seeing how your search snippets will appear before publishing your blog post. New to #SEO? Don't overlook your title tags and meta descriptions:Back To Table Of Contents 7  SEO Writing Tips To Create Better Content You've probably heard the cliche "content is king." We've heard this line repeated more times than we'd like to count. However, the sentiment behind this phrase rings true. You can't have an SEO strategy without  quality content. Follow these tips to write copy that's well-optimized for search engines without sounding spammy or mechanical. Tip 9: Include Your Primary Keyword In The Right Places It's important to make sure your primary keyword is included in several different places in your post. This is one of the most basic elements of on-page SEO. BONUS TIP: Remember, each blog post you publish should only target one primary keyword. The same goes for static website pages as well. Tip 10: Use Longtail Keywords Throughout Your Post Copy Longtail keywords are longer variations of your primary keyword. For example, if your primary keyword was "content marketing," some long  tail variations might include: content marketing ideas for solo bloggers content  marketing tips for small businesses software solutions for content marketing success These are just a few hypothetical examples. Tip 11: Understand  Latent Semantic Indexing Latent Semantic Indexing  refers to the way search engines look for relevant themes on web pages, rather than just keyword densities. According to long-time SEO expert Bruce Clay: In latent semantic indexing, Google sorts sites on the frequency of a variety of terms and key phrases linked together instead of on the frequency of a single term. Though your text content should include your main keyword or phrase, the content should never focus solely on that keyword or phrase. There is a possibility that Google may see the page as being over-optimized and penalties or a dip in rankings may result. In other words, use synonyms and phrasing variations of your primary keyword. Don't just repeat your primary keyword ad nauseam. This will look redundant and spammy both to readers and search engines alike. Use synonyms and phrasing variations of your primary #keyword. #SEO #BloggingMoz CEO Rand Fishkin  does a great job of explaining how to use semantically connected keywords: Tip 12: Write For People First, And For Search Engines Second Always write content with your audience in mind. If something sounds overly mechanical and over-optimized for search engines, readers will notice. This means you need to avoid keyword stuffing. Don't stick keywords everywhere possible in your post. Instead, spread them out naturally throughout your post. Odds are, you'll include long tail keywords naturally as you write anyway. Here's an example of a well-written sentence including the keyword "burrito recipe": "Learn how to make this excellent burrito recipe at home." Here's an example of what keyword stuffing might look like in this instance: "This best burrito recipe will help you make better burritos using black beans than any other recipe." One of these sentences reads clearly and includes the primary keyword in a useful way. The other sounds unnatural and over-optimized. BONUS TIP: If you have to make a trade-off between creative copy and SEO, lean toward creativity. Yes, your content needs to be properly optimized to get found. However, no one wants to read boring content. Make it a priority to ensure that what people read when they find your post is interesting. Tip 13: Make Sure Your Content Is Comprehensive Comprehensive blog posts should be as long as needed to thoroughly cover a topic. Studies show that blog posts with  at least 1,500 words rank best. Another study from Neil Patel ups that claim to 3,000 words.  These studies tell us two things: 1.  Search engines want their users to have a great experience. That means that you'll need to help them find the right information fast. For this reason, search engines  prefer to rank content that thoroughly answers a user's question about a topic. Ideally, they want your content to tell them everything they need to know without having to check another search result listing (which slows down the user and creates a weaker user experience). 2. It takes a fair amount  of words to really cover most topics thoroughly  (somewhere in the 1,500 t0 3,000 word range, or more). This doesn't mean you need to  pad your content with filler to hit a high word count. That won't help you create useful content or rank highly in search engines.  Do the following instead: Recommended Reading: This Is The Ultimate Blog Writing Process To Create Killer Posts Tip 14: Understand The Importance Of  Unique Content For SEO SEO experts have been telling people to create unique content for years. However, they don't always follow up with what "unique content" really means. When it comes to content marketing and SEO, unique content: Includes original verbiage that isn't duplicated elsewhere on the Web. Duplicate content is classified as content that is exactly the same or extremely similar. Includes material or types of content that other blog posts  on the same topic are missing. Includes knowledge or expertise other sources cannot easily duplicate. Here are some ways to ensure your content is unique: Use CopyScape to ensure your copy does not match any other web page word-for-word. Manually review the top ten posts and pages currently ranking for your prospective keyword. Identify information that's missing from these posts. Make sure that info is present in your own content. Add types of content to your post that others are missing. This could include videos, infographics, image galleries, PDF downloads, or other types of content that add unique value to your post. If you have original research or data,  include it in your posts. Readers and search engines both love original research because it provides unique value others can't deliver. That makes your content more valuable,  attracting back links and establishing your blog as a topical authority. BONUS TIP: This in-depth post about unique content from Distilled (a respected London-based SEO and content marketing agency) is a must-read. While it was published back in 2013, its insights are as true today as they were then. It's also a great example of what  a comprehensive and authoritative blog post looks like. Tip 15: Use Correct H1 - H6 Tags Using correct heading tags makes your posts easier to read. It also makes it easier for search engines to accurately interpret and index your content. You can find your heading controls in WordPress here: IMPORTANT NOTE: Each post and page on your site should include only one H1 tag. However, you can use multiple H2 - H6 headings as appropriate. Generally, it's considered a best practice to have four or fewer font sizes on a page as well. Consider using H2's for sub-headings, H3's for points beneath those subheadings, and use H4 tags sparingly. This will help you create well-structured posts that readers and search engines can easily interpret. Back To Table Of Contents 4 Image SEO Tips Search engines can't "look" at your images to determine their content. Instead, they use a handful of other data points to understand what your images are. Tip 16: Include  Keywords In Image File Names File names are important element that search engines need to accurately interpret image content. Follow these guidelines: Separate words in image file names with - (dashes) and not _ (underscores). Include your primary keyword phrase in one image on your post (ideally, a post header image). Here's what a well-formatted image file name might look like: super-awesome-keyword.jpg even-better-keyword.png the-best-keyword-yet.jpg You get the point. This is something that's often overlooked, but it can help you rank in image searches. It can also help support the overall SEO performance of your blog posts. BONUS TIP: Stick to using .jpg and .png files for your blog images. Tip 17: Avoid Using Image Title Tags You might notice that WordPress fills in image titles by default. However, there is some debate around how useful they are for SEO. After all, if you've given your image a descriptive file name and alt text, users and search engines alike should have all the information they need to understand your image. Including title tags isn't likely to hurt your SEO. It won't help much either, and it could cause your images to appear over-optimized (by trying to stuff too many keywords in your image data). Tip 18: Learn  How To Write Image Alt Text Alt text essentially provides alternative information to describe an image's content. You can easily edit image alt tags in WordPress here: Alt text is important for two reasons: It's used by Google to help it understand images (since it can't actually "see" images like a person can). If a browser can't load an image for some reason, alt text helps users understand what the image should be. Tip 19: Upload Images At The Exact Size You'd Like Them To Appear Bloggers often upload large images into WordPress, and then adjust the display size within the CMS. However, this slows down page load speed because it forces WordPress to resize the image as it's trying to load the page. Since page load speed is an important SEO factor, that can cause a problem. The solution is to upload images with the exact dimensions you want them to appear with. That way, your CMS won't have to work as hard to load your images. For example, the column width of the blog is 770 pixels. Therefore, we upload our images at 770 pixels wide (or less). If you want to find the exact  column width of your own blog, try using this Page Ruler extension for Chrome. It makes it easy to measure pixels: BONUS TIP: If you have a high volume of oversized images on your blog, it's probably not worth your time to retroactively re-size them. Simply keep this in mind moving forward. We've made this mistake before in the past too. Back To Table Of Contents 3 Internal  Linking Tips  To Avoid Over-Optimization Search engines use links to determine relationships between different pages and web sites. That's why it's important to earn backlinks from high-quality sites to improve your SEO. It's also important to make sure relevant pages and posts on your own site are linked as well. However, going overboard with optimizing internal links can get you in trouble with search engines. Follow these two tips to make sure you don't overdo it with internal linking. Tip 20: Make Author Bio Box Links No-Follow This tip requires some explanation about what follow and no follow links are. Follow links pass link equity in search engines. This means they tell search engines, "Hey, this page we're linking to is important." This directly impacts search engine rankings. No-follow links do not pass link equity. Search engines do not count no-follow links when calculating search engine rankings. Google doesn't want to see you creating garbage content just to get links. Readers don't either. Google doesn’t want to see you creating garbage content just to get links.To combat this, Google issued a warning to bloggers to make author box links no-follow. Even if your guest posts are legitimate and high-quality, making bio box links no-follow avoids creating the appearance of spamming (because search bots sometimes have difficulty telling the difference between what's legitimate and what's not). BONUS TIP: Consider using Gravatar to implement bio boxes on your blog. Not only is it super convenient and well-integrated with WordPress, it automatically applies a no-follow tag to all links. This is the solution we use for author bio boxes here on the blog. Tip 21: Avoid Over-Optimized Anchor Text On Internal Links Anchor text refers to the highlighted words used to link to another page. Search engines use anchor text to help them understand relationships between  linked pages. For example, if your anchor text is "burrito recipes," search engines can infer that the page you're linking to is probably related to making burritos. It can also understand that making burritos is relevant to the page where the linked text exists. It's important to make sure your anchor text is not over-optimized. This is especially when linking internally to your own posts. Here's why: Search engines use links to determine how important a web page is. More links from high quality pages  gives a post more authority to search engines. Links with anchor text related to a post's targeted keyword reinforce that post's authority for that keyword. Therefore, building lots of links with related  anchor text to a post will improve its rankings in organic search. However, you need to be careful not to use anchor text that is an exact match for the keyword the linked page  is optimized for. For example, let's say you have one page targeting the keyword  "burrito recipes" and another page targeting "burrito catering services" (please bear with me and my burrito obsession here). If you were to place a link (or worse, multiple links) from your burrito recipes page to your catering page, using the exact-match anchor text "burrito catering services," this would be considered SPAM. There's a good reason search engines consider over-optimized anchors to be spammy, too. The tactic has been over-abused over the years because it's an overly easy way to tell search engines, "Hey, I'm trying really hard to get this page to rank for this keyword." Instead, follow these guidelines when selecting anchor text: 1. Use a sentence fragment incorporating text that is relevant to the page being linked to, but is not an exact keyword match. 2. It's okay to use brand names or proper nouns as text anchors. Keep these two points in mind, and you'll  have smooth sailing ahead for your internal linking efforts. Tip 22: Do Link Between Related Pages On Your Site Internal links are extremely powerful for SEO. They help search engines understand which pages and posts on your site are related to each other. This helps Google and others better understand the meaning and context of your content, potentially leading to higher rankings. There are two key items to keep in mind here: Make sure the pages you link to are topically relevant to one another. Ensure your anchor text matches the context of the linked page. Here's an example of what we mean. In the screenshot below, we've selected the anchor text "create awesome evergreen content." And here's the linked page. Notice that the anchor text and the destination page are tightly topically related: This achieves two goals: It helps readers find more content they might be interested in (increasing your page views). It also helps the search engine understand that the destination page is a valuable resource for information about its topic (in this case, creating evergreen content). Make strong internal linking practices a habit, and soon enough, you'll have a site that's easier for both search engines and readers to navigate. Back To Table Of Contents 5 Simple Link Building Tips Backlinks from other websites are powerful for influencing search engine rankings. They tell search engines, "Hey, lots of people are directing traffic to this website. That must mean it's an important topical authority." Tip 23: Claim Unlinked Mentions Unlinked mentions are references to your brand or blog on other sites that don't include links. These can easily be discovered in three ways: Using a software platform like Moz or Ahrefs that detects unlinked mentions. Setting up Google Alerts for your brand name, and manually checking for links. Using advanced search operators to find unlinked brand mentions. The first option is the easiest. However, if you don't have budget, the second and third options are free. This guide on uncovering unlinked mentions  is a great place to start learning how to put them into practice. Once you've discovered an unlinked mention, the next step is to find an appropriate contact person. This could be the author of a blog post, the owner of a site, or a technical help contact. Send them a quick message thanking them for the mention, and ask if they can add a link. You'll likely find your success rate is fairly high. If someone is already talking about you, they'll probably be willing to add a link. Not only does this help your SEO, but it also makes it easier for their readers to find you. Tip 24: Leverage Public Relations For Links The first goal of PR is often to raise brand awareness. However, getting authoritative news sources to write about you can be a great way to build quality links, too. The trick is to offer editors an interesting angle that makes them want to write about you. In most cases, that means they'll link back to your site too. If you've never written a press release, start with this guide from The Guardian. Tip 25: Share Content On Social Media Social media links don't significantly impact SEO on their own. However, social promotion is important for getting your content in front of people. Some of those people might even link back to your content as a source for their own content. Tip 26: Avoid Link Spam Penalties Search engines are smart. They're able to understand  when people are trying to game the system with unnatural links. Once upon a time, SEOs and web masters would find ways to create high numbers of back links. Some still do, although their effectiveness has been almost entirely wiped out. Some of these black hat tactics included: Creating tons of low quality sites and linking back to themselves. Buying links. Hacking other sites, adding new secret pages, and linking back to other sites. In the darkest corners of the web, some people still try to pull these kinds of scams. However, their effectiveness has been almost entirely wiped out, thanks to search engine algorithm updates that prevent cheaters from winning. If you get caught creating manipulative back links, you can expect to hit with a manual penalty notice from Google. Next, you'll notice your search engine rankings dropping. You might even get removed from search engine indexes altogether. Before you panic, remember this is unlikely to happen if you follow these best practices: Avoid writing low quality guest blog posts strictly for link building purposes. It used to be common for content writers to blast out templated 300-word "guest posts" that they'd syndicate across dozens of blogs at once, just to build up links back to their site. This is a quick way to get slapped with a penalty. Instead, write high-quality and in-depth guest posts that help establish you as a topical authority (and maybe add one or two links back to your site for usability purposes). Never pay for links. If you're buying links, Google will know.  Places that sell links often live in "bad neighborhoods" that you don't want to be associated with. Don't spam comment sections with back links.  Before the majority of blogs used no-follow attributes on comment section links, underhanded SEOs would leave junk comments with links back to their sites. This was a quick and easy way to build up links. It's also a good way to annoy readers and make search engines angry. Tip 27: Create Great Content People Want To Link To This tip is a borderline cliche. Of course everyone knows they should "create great content." Nobody tries to create content that sucks and telling people to just "do better work" isn't helpful. It's lazy and vague advice that frankly insults people's intelligence. However, there are some concrete ways you can create content that's more likely to draw links. Try some of these: Present original information that doesn't exist on any other site. This might include running a survey, and then publishing a blog post with your findings. Make sure your content is comprehensive. That means covering your topic completely and in detail. If your page is the best resource available for a given topic, it's more likely to be cited as a source. Be timely. If your blog or site breaks some major news, you can expect to get a lot of backlinks as the original source. Create useful resource pages. For example, you could create a page that hosts a collection of downloadable templates or resources of some sort. If it's legitimately helpful, people will likely link to it. Run a contest with a quality sign-up landing page. If you promote the contest well, it might get some coverage (and that means backlinks). Build a useful web-based tool. Build something cool, and people will want to tell others about it. Portent's Content Idea Generator is a great example: People naturally want to tell other people about cool, useful stuff. Portent's Idea Generator is a great example of a tool that's fun, useful, and highly linkable. 4 Additional  Wordpress SEO Tips WordPress has a number of unique SEO considerations. Follow these tips to make sure  your WordPress blog plays nice with search engines. Tip 28: Use the Yoast SEO Plugin If there's only one WordPress plugin you use (aside from ), make it Yoast. It's packed full of powerful functionality for improving your SEO. Here are some things it can do: Make it easy to customize title tags and meta descriptions. Track how many times you've mentioned your primary keyword in your post. Rate the readability of your post according to the Flesch Reading Ease Readability Formula. Once installed, you can find the Yoast control panel at the bottom of your post within your WordPress CMS. Download Yoast here. Then, watch the video below to learn how to use it in under 30 minutes: Tip 29: Use A Mobile-Optimized WordPress Theme Mobile web traffic is gaining ground over desktop usage. That's why Google gives preference to mobile-optimized sites when calculating mobile search results. That means it's more important than ever to make sure your blog looks great on mobile devices. The easiest way to do this is to use a mobile-optimized WordPress theme. A quick Google search for mobile optimized WordPress themes should generate tons of different options to choose from. WARNING: Follow WordPress's guidelines when changing themes. Be warned that some functions and content might not appear the same in one theme as they do in another. Proceed with caution. Tip 30: Use SEO-Friendly Permalinks Search engines use keywords in URLs to help them determine what your pages are about. However, WordPress uses weird, non-optimal URLs by default which usually look something like this: What you want are URLs that look more like this: That keyword is going to make 100% more sense to search engines than a question mark followed by a random string of numbers. Watch this video to learn how to implement SEO-friendly permalinks: Tip 31: Fix Broken Links Broken links won't necessarily lead to problems for your SEO. However, they do create a poor user experience (even if you have a really funny 404 page). That can hurt your overall SEO efforts indirectly by causing visitors to leave. They can also create missed opportunities to link valuable pages, weakening your overall search performance. Fortunately, broken links are easy to fix. The Broken Link Checker plugin  makes it easy to identify and resolve 404 errors. You can also use another useful tool called Screaming Frog  to tackle this task. Download it here, then follow their detailed step-by-step instructions on fixing broken links. Back To Table Of Contents 3 Tips For Measuring SEO Success It's important to know whether your SEO initiatives are making a difference. By tracking the right metrics, the right way, you can make sure you know if you're on the right track. You can also more easily identify areas for opportunity. Tip 32: Make Sure You Have Google Analytics Properly Set Up Google Analytics is one of the best tools for measuring the success of your SEO. If you're just getting started, consider importing the New Google Analytics User Starter Bundle from Google. It's packed full of dashboards that are set up to monitor SEO performance (and a lot more) with minimal effort. Follow these steps to get started: 1.  Find the bundle in the  Google Analytics Solutions Gallery. 2. Click Import. In two easy steps, you now have all the dashboards you need to measure your success. BONUS TIP: For further assistance using Google Analytics, visit Google's support site. There, you'll find all the information you need to get started and sharpen your analytical skills. Tip 33: Track The Right Metrics When it comes to SEO, marketers tend to focus on rankings. However, rankings are not a strong key performance indicator (KPI) on their own. This is partly because personalized search makes it difficult to accurately track rankings across all users. It's also because rankings are a means to an end (driving traffic to your blog), rather than an end by themselves. When it comes to #SEO, are you tracking the right metrics?Instead, focus on traffic, conversion rates, and revenue (or leads generated, depending on which is more applicable to your situation). These metrics will tell you much more about your SEO success than rankings alone. BONUS TIP: Want to know the best way to sell the value of SEO to a business owner? Show them how much  revenue your efforts are earning. Tip 34: Use an SEO Software Platform SEO software subscriptions cost money. However, they're worth it if you can afford them. These services allow you to do the following (and more): Track keyword ranking changes over time Do detailed competitive research Monitor incoming backlinks Analyze your content Here are some popular options to consider: Moz  (suitable for all skill levels) Raven Tools  (suitable for all skill levels) (suitable for all skill levels) Positionly (suitable for all skill levels) Conductor (advanced enterprise solution) BrightEdge (advanced enterprise solution) SearchMetrics (advanced enterprise solution) Tools like Moz Pro feature tons of functionality to help manage your SEO efforts. BONUS TIP: If you can't afford an SEO platform, SEO Book,, and Moz  all offer free tools that are worth exploring. That's A Lot Of SEO Tips To Learn (And We're Just Getting Started) SEO is a deep discipline. It covers a broad range of tactics, strategies, and best practices. For this reason, it's impossible  to cover all there is to know in one post. In fact, if you're just starting out, it may take a while to digest everything this post alone. While we've touched on the most basic elements most content marketers need to know, here are some other great resources to check out when you're ready. Back To Table Of Contents Resources For Further Learning Moz's Beginner's Guide To SEO: This comprehensive guide is broken up into ten chapters. It covers nearly everything you'd ever need to know. Best of all, it's easy to follow and understand. The Art Of SEO: This book is intimidatingly thick, but fortunately, it's well worth your time. As  the most authoritative tome on SEO available in print, it walks readers through everything from the basics, up to more advanced techniques. If you're ready to really take your SEO knowledge to the next level, start here. 58 Resources To Help You Learn and Master SEO: This list from Kissmetrics includes articles breaking down nearly every aspect of SEO. If there's something specific you want to know more about, you can probably find it here. One of the best things about the content marketing and SEO communities is how open they are to sharing knowledge and welcoming newcomers. is an awesome place to ask questions and find answers to anything you'd like to know. Do you have a favorite tip you want to share? Let us know in the comments below.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Benefits of Distance Learning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Benefits of Distance Learning - Essay Example I. What is Distance Learning? a) Separation by Distance. 1. This is a situation whereby teaching learning takes place while the teacher and the students are separated by distance. b) Delivery of Instructions. 1. This is a situation whereby the instructions are delivered to the student via computer technology, video, print or voice. c) Interactive Communication. 1. In distance learning the teacher received feedback to the students which could be instant or delayed. II. Distance Learning Divisions a) Synchronous Delivery Type. 1. In this type of distance learning, the teacher and the students interact with each other instantly. 2. The instant interaction between the teacher and the student is facilitated by use of videoconferencing, audio conferencing and live internet chats. b) Asynchronous Delivery Type. 1. In this type of distance learning, the interaction between the teacher and the students is not instant. 2. The delayed interaction between the teachers and the students is facilitated by use of video tapes, audio tapes, radio, email and CD-Rom.

Direct Manipulation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Direct Manipulation - Essay Example The direct manipulation interface is a more efficient mode of interaction where the user points at metaphors on the computer and the commands given on their behalf, unlike the line command that requires them to key in the commands by themselves. Direct manipulation, being easier and faster at executing commands, is a preference of majority computer users today, especially designers and gamers as it supports the creation of virtual environments. A virtual environment is a simulation by means of a computer that creates a false or aped environment in which a computer user can perceive themselves in, and interact with objects in it (Montfort, Nick, & Noah 485). The direct manipulation interface has three main principles that make it a preference for a larger cross-section of computer users today. The first principle is the ability to virtually represent the objects of interest continuously in graphic forms and in almost real appearances. The other principle is the support of fast, revers ible actions that are immediate and the last principle is the ability to directly manipulate a command on an object after using a pointing device to locate it. These principles are universal in that they are almost similar from system to system, therefore allowing frequent users to familiarize with, and use them anywhere. Application of direct manipulation interface in games Direct manipulation supports graphical representation of objects, an application extended and put to use in games, as they require simulation to create virtual environments that enable the user to perceive of them being in them. 3D renderings of virtual environments of action excite the user, further engaging them and letting them take roles and control avatars in games. The user interacts with virtual characters who act as drivers, players, dragons and so on in virtual environments with highways, hills, water, and fire. In order for the user to interact with the virtual characters and environments, they require game controls to direct their subjects. Direct manipulation enables the user to use buttons or other game controls and not type lengthy syntax commands. This makes the user enjoy the game without much cramming of commands. The game controls in the games give instructions or commands to the virtual objects or characters that result in rapid responses that prompt the user to correct their moves or perform moves that are more complex thus actively engaging in the virtual gaming (Montfort, Nick, & Noah 499). Types of game interfaces There are two types of game interfaces: three-dimensional and two-dimensional. 3-D game interface is the representation of geometric data in a form that has length, width, and height (has x, y and z-axes) such that it is visible from all perspectives and has the perception to hold mass. 2-D interface is a representation that displays graphics on a screen by use of pixel arrays. It has an X and Y-axis only (Cellary, Wojciech & Krzysztof 279). These two inter faces apply in gaming and computer aided design but are largely inapplicable in real life applications for several reasons. An example is in word processing or spreadsheet applications where using a 3-D interface will make it impossible or very hard to write and annotate. Another reason is that that due to the additional axis in 3-D

Friday, October 18, 2019

Vegetarianism and Its Various Benefits Research Paper

Vegetarianism and Its Various Benefits - Research Paper Example People may also turn vegetarian since they feel that human beings are supposed to eat food that is obtained only from plant sources. Vegetarianism can also be manifested in different forms and degrees with some people deciding to be extreme followers and some deciding against it. With the increase in the number of vegetarians in the world, there are sects even within vegetarians. There are some who eat eggs and dairy products and others who avoid them. They are classified into lacto-vegetarians, ovo-vegetarians, lacto-ovo-vegetarians, vegans and so on and so forth (Vegetarianism, n.d.). These categories prove the importance that people assign to the constituents of their diet in a world comprising people who are increasingly conscious of their appearances and their health. In many industrial countries this may be a survival tactic to gain more immunity against the pollution that is prevalent in these countries. In others, it may be a means of gaining protein from certain sources whil e remaining faithful to their religious practices. Anyhow, these sects within the larger group of vegetarians prove how strong the overall movement against what they perceive as cruelty to animals is. In some cases, religious beliefs can be the root cause of vegetarianism and in such instances, people start attaching great value to their vegetarianism as it is a symbol of their culture. Especially in communities that consist of immigrants, vegetarianism can be a strong reminder of the culture of the homeland and may be held on to with great strength. This can be seen in the Jain communities of the United States of America. Originally from the Indian subcontinent, the people belonging to the Jain community are mostly lacto-vegetarians and they believe in not inflicting violence upon animals. This is a part of the larger theories of nonviolence that were propounded by the founder of Jainism, Mahavir (Mehta, n.d.). The importance of vegetarian diets is significant in the cultures of Ja inism and some sects of Jains even wear cloth masks so as to not accidentally inhale insects and cause harm to them. The conflict between different cultures that believe in vegetarianism and non-vegetarianism as parts of their religion creates problems for many nations. In multicultural and multi-religious societies across the world, such problems keep surfacing. In such a scenario, it becomes important for one to analyze the position of vegetarianism in the world and whether it would not be beneficial to adopt vegetarianism as a whole. This discussion is at a hypothetical level as people are free to choose the food of their choice unless of course, there are instructions from the state to the contrary. This paper shall look at the benefits of vegetarianism for human beings at an individual level and also for the environment. It shall speak of the different positive effects that vegetarianism ahs on the human body. It shall also discuss the negative effects that the meat industry ha s on the environment and the flora of a nation. The conservation of the environment would receive a boost if the presence of the meat-production centers in the world would decrease. Vegetarian diets often have the ability to provide the body with substances that would enable it to detoxify itself. The presence of various kinds of vitamins and minerals in these diets, absent from meat-only diets, helps the body to purify itself of the toxic substances that may be

Encryption Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Encryption - Essay Example Chung takes V2 kL mod n1 received from Lilly and operates on it by exponentiation modulo n1 with kC to give V2 kLkC mod n1. He intends to use this as session key ks1C to encrypt his message to a client. Ks1C = V2 kLkC mod n1 = 37(127*234) mod 257 = 133 mod 257 Step 4 Lilly takes V1 kC mod n1 received from Chung and operates on it by exponentiation modulo n1 with kL to give V1 kCkL mod n1. She intends to use this as session key ks1L to attempt to decrypt Chung's message to a client. Ks1L = V1 kCkL mod n1 = 126(234*127) mod 257 = 252 mod 257 (b) If Chung and Lilly had both picked the value V4 for their parts of the key exchange using the method illustrated in part (a), the result would be a session key of 192. Complete Table A4 to show how a session key ks = 192 might be encrypted with the client's public key, and then decrypted by the client on receipt. Table A4 Encryption of the session key Step 1 The value for the session key ks supplied in Question 2 Part (b). ks =192 Step 2 The value for the modulus n2 supplied in Question 2 Part (b) n2 =26 Step 3 The value of the session key ks written as text ks expressed in text = one nine two Step 4 A suitable value for Tait's public key KT KT = 15 Step 5 The session key ks encrypted with Tait's public key KT. { ks} KT = C T: {R}ks, {ks}KT = CNINQNIZSC Step 6 __ A suitable value for Tait's private key KT __ KT =7 Step 7 The result of decrypting the encrypted session key __ using Tait's private key KT {{ks}KT}KT = ONENINETWO Question 3 Complete the following unfinished sections in the main body and appendix of the report printed in the appendix to this companion, and referred to in the 'Background for Questions...Today, the encryption process involves altering and rearranging bits of digital data using a systematic procedure that can be converted into a computer program. Encryption is a commonly used method for providing a certain degree of security in technology-based systems. Simple encryption methods include the substitution of letters for numbers, the rotation of letters in the alphabet or the "scrambling" of voice signals by inverting the sideband frequencies. The more complex methods use sophisticated computer algorithms that rearrange the data bits in digital signals. Data is converted into a series of numbers which are then used as input into calculations. The calculated results become the encrypted data (Case Resource). In 1976 the idea of public key encryption was introduced to the field of cryptography. The idea revolved around the premise of making the encryption and decryption keys different so that the sender and recipient need not know the same keys. The sender and the recipient will both have their own private key and a public key would be known by anyone. Each encryption or decryption process would require at least one public key and one private key ( 2008). Public key encryption techniques or asymmetric key systems avoid the need to distribute keys in secret. Symmetric key systems are those which allow the decryption process to be derived from the encryption key.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Merits and potentials of adopting various Information Systems Essay

Merits and potentials of adopting various Information Systems - Essay Example This coverage led to the promotion of the luxury watercraft build by BMW and acquired by the celebrities. The company being aware of this scenario has decided to take advantage of this media promotion and expand it’s business. Strategy meetings have been organized. The decision to invest further in the business at this particular time is a wise one, and would prove to be a profitable one in the long run. However, to ensure the success of the expansion plan, certain factors needed to be critically examined and their solutions provided. In this report, the problems that could possibly be a hindrance to the growth of the company are identified, discussed and their solutions stated. The business has nine departments which are interrelated. Each department has it’s separate staff, according to the specific requirements of that department. A study was conducted identifying the areas of concern in each department. Some have more room for improvement while others have less, but it is noticeable that all need to be modernized and up to dated to face the challenges of the competitive market. The company started in late 1800 century now needs to equip itself with the modern techniques to achieve maximum profit. The identified areas of concern in each department are discussed in the following section. Discussion on the Identified Issues: It is a matter of concern for the Bank and the investors whether the company will be able to withstand the effects of expansion and would be able to deliver as desired. For this, a study of the various processes involved within the business is carried out and areas of concern are highlighted. One of the departments is the Warehouse, where deliveries from the suppliers are stored and forwarded when ordered for. The materials stored are of various characteristics. Some can be kept for longer periods of time while others are perishable. One major concern arising here is that proper and timely placements need to be made in order to save stock and ensure no delay in further processing using these materials. Secondly, there is lack of knowledge regarding the arrival time of the raw material to the warehouse. The storage capacity cannot be anticipated due to this issue as well. The manufacturing department is the core of this business setup. However, it is not the most well-managed one, according to my findings. Orders are made to the suppliers when a particular material is in demand by the manufacturing department. There is no information kept by the manufacturing department on the availability of a material or its transportability prior to the placement of it’s order (assumption). This can result in a delay in manufacturing and ultimately, delay in delivery to the customer. For a company of such magnitude and reputation, this should not be acceptable. There is also uncertainty as to the availability of skilled staff for increased manufacturing. As highly skilled personnel are required in the manufactu ring department, a provision in the form of apprentice scheme is in place to fill for any shortages. Whether the trainees would meet the shortfall if it occurs and whether there is information present

Philo 115 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Philo 115 - Essay Example been playing dirty power politics in the White House, the man in the conversations responds by derogatorily attacking the Clintons and he says that the Clintons are Arkansas ad for that reason they are next to the Orkies. Question 3. The correct fallacy for this snippet is the fallacy of begging the question. This is because the conclusion that, weeks of patient investigation had revealed that gas leaked at Bhopal India with thousands of investigation is already presumed in the premise that something went wrong. (a) Small Sample fallacy: Paul Stiglich committed this fallacy by claiming that there was a necessary connection between the ceremony performed by the Red Indian and the heavy rain that fell shortly after the performance. This is because Stiglich did not have enough samples to make that conclusion; Stiglich’s conclusion is based on small sample ( one sample only). (b) Hasty Conclusion: Paul Stiglich committed this fallacy by drawing a general conclusion from a particular single case. By claiming that the Red Indian’s performance had a connection and actually caused the heavy rain that fell after the Indian’s performance, Stiglich made a hasty generalization because he did not have sufficient evidence to make such a general claim. (c) The Fallacy of Supressed Evidence : By claiming that the performance of the Red Indian cause the heavy rain that fell shortly after the Red-Indian’s performance, Paul Stiglich overlooking, suppressed, and omitting other important evidence on what causes the rain. This is because there is sufficient scientific evidence on what causes rain and how rain comes about. Stiglich omitted such evidence in making his conclusion that the Red Indian’s performance caused the rain. (d) The Fallacy of Superstition: Paul Stiglich’s claim that the Red-Indian’s performance cause the heavy rain that fell after the performance is clearly a superstitious claim. This is because there is no scientific proof that such a

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Merits and potentials of adopting various Information Systems Essay

Merits and potentials of adopting various Information Systems - Essay Example This coverage led to the promotion of the luxury watercraft build by BMW and acquired by the celebrities. The company being aware of this scenario has decided to take advantage of this media promotion and expand it’s business. Strategy meetings have been organized. The decision to invest further in the business at this particular time is a wise one, and would prove to be a profitable one in the long run. However, to ensure the success of the expansion plan, certain factors needed to be critically examined and their solutions provided. In this report, the problems that could possibly be a hindrance to the growth of the company are identified, discussed and their solutions stated. The business has nine departments which are interrelated. Each department has it’s separate staff, according to the specific requirements of that department. A study was conducted identifying the areas of concern in each department. Some have more room for improvement while others have less, but it is noticeable that all need to be modernized and up to dated to face the challenges of the competitive market. The company started in late 1800 century now needs to equip itself with the modern techniques to achieve maximum profit. The identified areas of concern in each department are discussed in the following section. Discussion on the Identified Issues: It is a matter of concern for the Bank and the investors whether the company will be able to withstand the effects of expansion and would be able to deliver as desired. For this, a study of the various processes involved within the business is carried out and areas of concern are highlighted. One of the departments is the Warehouse, where deliveries from the suppliers are stored and forwarded when ordered for. The materials stored are of various characteristics. Some can be kept for longer periods of time while others are perishable. One major concern arising here is that proper and timely placements need to be made in order to save stock and ensure no delay in further processing using these materials. Secondly, there is lack of knowledge regarding the arrival time of the raw material to the warehouse. The storage capacity cannot be anticipated due to this issue as well. The manufacturing department is the core of this business setup. However, it is not the most well-managed one, according to my findings. Orders are made to the suppliers when a particular material is in demand by the manufacturing department. There is no information kept by the manufacturing department on the availability of a material or its transportability prior to the placement of it’s order (assumption). This can result in a delay in manufacturing and ultimately, delay in delivery to the customer. For a company of such magnitude and reputation, this should not be acceptable. There is also uncertainty as to the availability of skilled staff for increased manufacturing. As highly skilled personnel are required in the manufactu ring department, a provision in the form of apprentice scheme is in place to fill for any shortages. Whether the trainees would meet the shortfall if it occurs and whether there is information present

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

HS Class Observation Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

HS Class Observation Report - Essay Example As a function of this observation, this analysis report will focus specifically on the means by which the educator interacted with the classroom in order to effect shareholder engagement and buy in within the process of education and the transfer of key points of information. The first thing that this student noticed with respect to the means by which the educator attempted to convey the information to the class was the degree of interaction that the educator created with the students. Although many theories of student participation contend that the means by which the educator attempts to convey a sense of interaction and inclusion into the learning process directly affects the engagement with which the students/shareholders will engage upon such a topic, the fact of the matter is that the correct application of such a practice is oftentimes difficult to achieve. The educator in question did so in a way that both encouraged classroom participation while at the same time working to ke ep a level of order and control. Oftentimes, as has been noted by educators, seeking to engage the class on a topic can quickly break down in a type of cacophony of competing voices. However, due to a structured environment, the class was able to engage on the topics that the educator presented without losing focus upon the purpose of the structures that defined the interaction. This leads conveniently into the second observation that this student made while visiting the classroom in question. Due to the fact that such a high level of structure existed, it went almost unnoticed (LoCasale-Crouch et al 2012). However, had it not been for the tacit acceptance of such a structure by the shareholders in question, the engagement that the educator was able to achieve would never have been an option. Moreover, whereas this student could easily observe the level of interaction and integration between the educator and the students within the classroom, the structure that existed once class be gan was a construct that obviously had existed for a long period of time and had been formed from a point in time that the observer was not present. With respect to how the students were able to be engaged and motivated, this observer noted that although there was no threat of a negative consequence through non-involvement/engagement with the material that the instructor was presenting, there was a conscious mention, near the beginning of the course section, that reminded the students that careful attention to the discussion that was about to ensue would help them greatly with respect to understanding the requirements of upcoming course work and exams (O'Leary 2011). In this way, rather than providing a summarily positive or negative incentive to engage with the exercise, the instructor was able to motivate the students to take grasp of the opportunity that was being provided to them and engage with the material so that they could be more responsible for affecting the development of the educational process and as a function of this, effect a positive change on their overall grade in the course. Due this experience, this observer was able to make note of key ways in which the educator and the students interacted, the means through which the educator was able to shape the discussion, and the level of inte

Monday, October 14, 2019

Simons Stigmata In Lord of the Flies Essay Example for Free

Simons Stigmata In Lord of the Flies Essay In William Goldings novel, Lord of the Flies, the character Simon portrays many characteristics similar to those demonstrated by Jesus in the bible. He is shown to have all the qualities that Jesus has: determination, intelligence and resilience. Even his physical appearance portrays Christ since he is skinny and not much of a tough person. Simon was very calm and caring for others, especially with the little children and enjoyed being alone when he could. Simon embodies a pure spiritual human goodness that is deeply connected with nature and people around him as Jesus did with his disciples. Both Jesus and Simon had prophecies about things to come, and they were both persecuted and were ridiculed of for sharing those prophecies. Whereas Ralph and Jack stand at opposite ends of the scale between civilization and savagery, Simon stands on an entirely different plane from all the other boys. Unlike all the other boys on the island, Simon acts with kindness and purity because he believes in the inherent value of morality. He behaves kindly toward the younger children, and he is the first to realize the problem posed by the beast, that the monster on the island is not real or something that can be hunted down and killed. It isnt physical but rather a savagery that lurks within each human being. In Golding’s view, the human impulse toward civilization is not as deeply entrenched as the human impulse toward savagery. Despite the fact that Simon is one of the smallest biguns he never follows the others way of thinking, nor backs down when it comes to speaking up for himself. One such occasion where he shows his defiance of the others beliefs is when he says to everyone, I think we ought to climb the mountain. (page 128) This shows that he knows the beast isnt real and he shows no fear of the unknown. Jesus called people to do things they thought would be simply impossible just as Simon did, and the fact that not even the stronger boys had the courage to do it shows how assured Simon is to his morals. Simon was sacrificed during the ritual dance so that the other boys could live. Simon was killed by all the boys in an excruciating way and claimed that it wasnt really him. Everyone but Ralph thought that Simon was the beast, and didn’t think twice before attacking him. Ralph knew it was Simon they killed, and he realized how everyone was acting like wild creatures. Also the way Simon was shown in the movie after he died showed him as a Christ-figure in the story; Simon dies on water that is calm and peaceful, as the light reflected off the water it gave a kind of feeling of holiness. Simon’s body was carried out by the waves and the way he was floating with his arms stretched out, replicates the way that Jesus died on the cross. Throughout the story, Simon is shown to have a very strong connection with Jesus by his actions of kindness. He displayed as a person with divine ties with Christ and a reminder that purity is everywhere, even when all hopes seem to be gone. The many occurrences Simon gains the courage to speak up and show how smart, intelligent he really is makes a huge impact on everyone. Simon, like Christ, was never evil and always helped others out with what he could. Simon symbolizes and demonstrates a sort a purity that goes beyond human goodness. However, his brutal murder at the hands of the other boys designates the lack of that goodness in people against an overwhelming abundance of evil that lies deep within each and everyone one of us.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Functions

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Functions The immune system is complex, containing thousands of components. On the whole this highly adaptive system works well, protecting the individual primarily against the threat of disease caused by infectious organisms (Wood, 2006). However, the immune system can deteriorate and fail should any component of this refined system be mutated or compromised. In this report, an overview of the immune system will be covered, along with an explanation of how the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) functions specifically. An example of how the immune system can be compromised should the MHC molecule be short or absent will also be discussed with reference to a condition known as Bare Lymphocyte Syndrome. How the MHC molecule contributes to a healthy immune system will be discussed, along with the effect an MHC deficiency has and how this compromises the immune system at a molecular level. Reference will be made to a case study related to the Bare Lymphocyte Syndrome and a conclusion will be made as to how this condition links to the MHC molecule specifically. An Overview of the Immune System The immune system can be split into two systems of immunity, innate and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity is the first line of defence against pathogens in the body, preventing most infections occurring by eliminating the pathogen within hours of being encountered. This is achieved by firstly possessing external barriers to infections such as skin, mucosa, gut flora and lysozymes in tears. Secondly, the immune system mounts an immediate attack against any infectious sources entering the host via pre-existing defence mechanisms within the body. Phagocytosis is the major element contributing to innate immunity. This is the ingestion and destruction of microbes by phagocytes in a process by which the phagocyte attaches to the microbe in question, engulfs the microbe, kills the microbe and then degrades the microbe using proteolytic enzymes (Wood, 2006). This process is aided by complement proteins and opsonisation. Another part of the innate immune response is for inflammation to occur . This enables cells and soluble factors from the bloodstream to be enlisted at a particular tissue site in order to assist in the fight against infection. These can be local or systemic and cause vasodilation to occur at the site of infection; cause the endothelium to have increased expression of adhesion molecules in the cells lining the blood vessels; cause increased vascular permeability and cause chemotactic factors to be produced, therefore attracting cells into the tissue from the bloodstream (Wood, 2006). Overall, innate immunity is the first step in combating infection in the body; however a more specific system is often required. Acquired immunity occurs when a pathogen enters the body which the innate immune system cannot destroy, whether it is the pathogen has evolved a way of being avoided by the cells in the innate immune system or whether it be the pathogen expresses molecules similar to host cells as in the case of viruses. In such cases as these, acquired immunity is needed, where lymphocytes are used to identify, engulf and kill the pathogen in question. This is a more evolutionary advanced system compared to innate immunity. Two types of lymphocyte cells are employed in the acquired immune response; these are B lymphocyte cells, which are responsible for creating antibodies; and T lymphocyte cells, which are more complex in their receptor and require cell-to-cell contact. There are two types of T lymphocyte cells; those expressing CD4 molecules on their surface are referred to as Helper T cells or CD4 T cells, and those expressing CD8 molecules of their surface are referred to as cytotoxic T cells or CD8 T cells. The latter of these two T cells is important in the killing of virally infected cells (Kindt et. al., 2007). T cells recognise antigens by T cell Receptors (TcR) expressed on their surface; each T cell expresses only one TcR specifically. T cells do not recognise free antigens but recognise antigens associated with molecules on the surface of cells called Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules (Wood, 2006). MHC molecules specifically for the human species are known as Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA); these are located on chromosome 6 (Kindt et, al., 2007). The MHC constitutes important genetic components of the mammalian immune system. There are two types of MHC molecules, Class I and Class II MHC. Class I MHC molecules are glycoproteins expressed on the cell surface of most nucleated cells, whereas Class II MHC molecules are also glycoproteins but are restricted in their expression, primarily being found on cells of the immune system such as B cells, macropha ges, dendritic cells and monocytes (Wood, 2006). Class I and II MHC molecules bind to antigens derived from pathogens and present them to T lymphocytes (Sommer, 2005). CD8 T cells recognise antigens presented by Class I MHC molecules whereas CD4 T cells recognise antigens presented by Class II MHC molecules. MHC molecules play an important role in immune defence against intracellular pathogens, peptides derived from viral proteins and cancer infected cells. (Sommer, 2005). Antigen Presentation of MHC Class I An event involving generation of peptides from proteins in the cell and displaying these peptides on the plasma membrane is called antigen processing and presentation (Benjamini et al., 1996). MHC Class I molecules consists of HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C. HLA are cell surface heterodimers consisting of a polymorphic ÃŽ ± chain associated with a non-polymorphic ÃŽ ²2 microglobulin protein (Chaplin, 2010). In the antigen presentation pathway of MHC Class I, the viral protein is degraded into peptides through proteasome-mediated proteolysis which is then transported into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (fig 1). This transport process is facilitated by a transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). Once in the ER, the translocated peptide binds to MHC Class I ÃŽ ± chains and ÃŽ ²2 microglobulin through momentary interaction of MHC Class I heterodimers and TAP (Chaplin, 2010). This momentary interaction is carried out with the help of Tapasin (fig 2). This binding of peptide and MHC Cl ass I results in structural changes; eventually leading to the dissociation of peptide-MHC Class I complex (Chaplin, 2010). This peptide-MHC Class I complex then migrates to the cell surface where it is recognised by CD8 T cells triggering the associated immune response. (Raghavan,1999). When the immune system is working correctly, pathogens entering the body will be destroyed rapidly. However, if a component of the immune system is compromised, devastating effects can be seen. An example of this was seen in the case study of Tatiana and Alexander Islayev; two siblings originally from Russia who were suffering from symptoms linked to Bare Lymphocyte Syndrome. Tatiana had severe bronchiectasis and a persistent cough which produced yellow-green sputum. She had been chronically ill since the age of 4 when she had begun to have repeated infections of the sinuses, middle ear and lungs, all due to a variety of respiratory viruses. Both Haemophilus influenza and Streptococcus pneumonia bacteria could be cultured from her sputum. She had been prescribed frequent antibiotic treatments to control her fevers and cough with no success. Her brother, Alexander was also showing the same symptoms. When their blood was examined, both children had elevated IgG levels with over 90% of their T cells being CD4 and only 10% being CD8. Both children expressed very small amounts of MHC Class I molecules in their cells but expressed MHC Class II molecules normally. When the childrens DNA was analysed, it was found that they both had a mutation in the TAP-2 gene. Type I Bare Lymphocyte Syndrome Bare Lymphocyte Syndrome (BLS) Type I also known as MHC Class I deficiency, is characterized by a severe down-regulation of MHC class I and/or class II molecules (Gadola et. al., 2000). Type 1 BLS is due to a defect confined to MHC class I molecules, while type 2 BLS shows down-regulation of MHC class II molecules. Like any other cell surface protein MHC class I molecules are synthesised in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), modified in the Golgi apparatus and are transported in transport vesicles to the cell surface (Wood, 2006). MHC class I molecules bind to different sets of peptides. Translocation of peptides derived from degradation of cytosolic proteins from the cytoplasm into the RER is negotiated by transporter molecules known as transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) molecules. TAP is a heterodimer consisting of two subunits, TAP-1 and TAP-2, which are encoded in the class II region of the MHC locus on chromosome 6. Deletion or mutation of either or both TA P-1 and TAP-2 proteins severely impairs the translocation of peptides into the RER, the result of which is reduced surface expression of MHC class I molecules (Gadola et. al., 2000). BLS is manifested as a combined immunodeficiency presenting early in life. BLS manifests during the first 6 years of life where affected individuals are susceptible to recurrent opportunistic bacterial infections especially of the upper respiratory tract. In BLS, the underlying cause of Class I deficiency is due to a nonsense mutation in the TAP (Clement et. al., 1988). As discussed earlier, TAP is involved in the critical step of transporting peptides to the inner lumen of ER. In BLS, the deficiencies of active TAP results in the impairment of the transport of peptide to ER. This inefficient transport means that few or no MHC Class I molecules can be complexed with peptides. The un-complexed MHC Class I molecules are highly unstable and are therefore degraded quickly. This ultimately results in low levels of peptide-MHC Class I complex being expressed on the plasma membrane. In this way, deficiency in active TAP leads to low antigen presentation via MHC Class I molecules resulting in inefficient activation of CD8 T lymphocytes and consequently a compromised immune response. The basis of bare lymphocyte syndrome can be concluded from protein coded genes that are transformed and are not able to control the expression of the MHC I genes. Till today a beneficial treatment of TAP deficiency is not yet available; gene therapy isnt possible as almost all of the HLA class I molecule express on nucleated cells. If there is damage to the bronchial and pulmonary tissue lung transplantation can be performed. Contact with tobacco and smoke should be avoided and also vaccinations should be performed against respiratory pathogens. Other than Bare lymphocyte syndrome, MHC class I allotype is also linked to various sero-negative spondarthropathies, such as Ankylosing spondylitis, Psoriatic Arthritis, Reiters Syndrome and Behcets syndrome.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Devil Of Tom Walker And Th Essay -- essays research papers

Despite the evidence that Washington Irving uses to show his love for America in his stories, he portrays some characters in the Devil and Tom Walker and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow as greedy. Irving shows concern for America by placing stories in uniquely American moments. In this essay I will prove through passages and quotes from Irving's stories that he shows his love for America in his stories and portrays some characters as greedy in the two stories. The historical settings of these stories is made apparent by the use of elements common to the revolutionary era. In The Devil and Tom Walker when Irving is describing the setting he gives an impression that it took place in America. In describing the setting he says, "It had been the stronghold of the Indians during their war with the colonists." Since the war took place in America this is one evidence of his love for America. Another is when Irving is describing the devil and he makes the point that he a particularly American devil. When the devil first meets Tom and the devil is telling him about himself he says, "I amuse myself by presiding at the persecutions of Quakers and Anabaptists; I am the great patron and prompter of slave dealers and the grandmaster of the Salem witches." In The Legend of Sleepy Hollow there are many American traits in the description of the setting. It is said by some to be the ghost of a Hessian trooper, whose head had been car ried away by a...

Friday, October 11, 2019

? Analyses and Compare the Physical Storage Structures and Types of Available Index of the Latest Versions of: 1. Oracle 2. Sql Server 3. Db2 4. Mysql 5. Teradata

Assignment # 5 (Individual) Submission 29 Dec 11 Objective: To Enhance Analytical Ability and Knowledge * Analyses and Compare the Physical Storage Structures and types of available INDEX of the latest versions of: 1. Oracle 2. SQL Server 3. DB2 4. MySQL 5. Teradata First of all define comparative framework. Recommend one product for organizations of around 2000-4000 employees with sound reasoning based on Physical Storage Structures Introduction to Physical Storage Structures One characteristic of an RDBMS is the independence of logical data structures such as  tables,  views, and  indexes  from physical storage structures.Because physical and logical structures are separate, you can manage physical storage of data without affecting access to logical structures. For example, renaming a database file does not rename the tables stored in it. The following sections explain the physical database structures of an Oracle database, including datafiles, redo log files, and control f iles. Datafiles Every Oracle database has one or more physical  datafiles. The datafiles contain all the database data. The data of logical database structures, such as tables and indexes, is physically stored in the datafiles allocated for a database.The characteristics of datafiles are: * A datafile can be associated with only one database. * Datafiles can have certain characteristics set to let them automatically extend when the database runs out of space. * One or more datafiles form a logical unit of database storage called a tablespace. Data in a datafile is read, as needed, during normal database operation and stored in the memory cache of Oracle. For example, assume that a user wants to access some data in a table of a database. If the requested information is not already in the memory cache for the database, then it is read from the appropriate atafiles and stored in memory. Modified or new data is not necessarily written to a datafile immediately. To reduce the amount of disk access and to increase performance, data is pooled in memory and written to the appropriate datafiles all at once, as determined by the  database writer process (DBWn)  background process. Control Files Every Oracle database has a  control file. A control file contains entries that specify the physical structure of the database. For example, it contains the following information: * Database name * Names and locations of datafiles and redo log files * Time stamp of database creationOracle can  multiplex  the control file, that is, simultaneously maintain a number of identical control file copies, to protect against a failure involving the control file. Every time an  instance  of an Oracle database is started, its control file identifies the database and redo log files that must be opened for database operation to proceed. If the physical makeup of the database is altered, (for example, if a new datafile or redo log file is created), then the control file is autom atically modified by Oracle to reflect the change. A control file is also used in database recovery. Redo Log FilesEvery Oracle database has a set of two or more  redo log files. The set of redo log files is collectively known as the redo log for the database. A redo log is made up of redo entries (also called  redo records). The primary function of the redo log is to record all changes made to data. If a failure prevents modified data from being permanently written to the datafiles, then the changes can be obtained from the redo log, so work is never lost. To protect against a failure involving the redo log itself, Oracle allows a  multiplexed redo log  so that two or more copies of the redo log can be maintained on different disks.The information in a redo log file is used only to recover the database from a system or media failure that prevents database data from being written to the datafiles. For example, if an unexpected power outage terminates database operation, then data in memory cannot be written to the datafiles, and the data is lost. However, lost data can be recovered when the database is opened, after power is restored. By applying the information in the most recent redo log files to the database datafiles, Oracle restores the database to the time at which the power failure occurred.The process of applying the redo log during a recovery operation is called  rolling forward. Archive Log Files You can enable automatic archiving of the redo log. Oracle automatically archives log files when the database is in  ARCHIVELOG  mode. Parameter Files Parameter files contain a list of configuration parameters for that instance and database. Oracle recommends that you create a server parameter file (SPFILE) as a dynamic means of maintaining initialization parameters. A server parameter file lets you store and manage your initialization parameters persistently in a server-side disk file.Alert and Trace Log Files Each server and background proces s can write to an associated trace file. When an internal error is detected by a process, it dumps information about the error to its trace file. Some of the information written to a trace file is intended for the database administrator, while other information is for Oracle Support Services. Trace file information is also used to tune applications and instances. The alert file, or alert log, is a special trace file. The alert file of a database is a chronological log of messages and errors. Backup Files To restore a file is to replace it with a backup file.Typically, you restore a file when a media failure or user error has damaged or deleted the original file. User-managed backup and recovery requires you to actually restore backup files before you can perform a trial recovery of the backups. Server-managed backup and recovery manages the backup process, such as scheduling of backups, as well as the recovery process, such as applying the correct backup file when recovery is needed . A database  instance  is a set of memory structures that manage database files. Figure 11-1  shows the relationship between the instance and the files that it manages.Figure 11-1 Database Instance and Database Files Mechanisms for Storing Database Files Several mechanisms are available for allocating and managing the storage of these files. The most common mechanisms include: 1. Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) Oracle ASM includes a file system designed exclusively for use by Oracle Database. 2. Operating system file system Most Oracle databases store files in a  file system, which is a data structure built inside a contiguous disk address space. All operating systems have  file managers that allocate and deallocate disk space into files within a file system.A file system enables disk space to be allocated to many files. Each file has a name and is made to appear as a contiguous address space to applications such as Oracle Database. The database can creat e, read, write, resize, and delete files. A file system is commonly built on top of a  logical volume  constructed by a software package called a  logical volume manager (LVM). The LVM enables pieces of multiple physical disks to be combined into a single contiguous address space that appears as one disk to higher layers of software. 3. Raw device Raw devices  are disk partitions or logical volumes not formatted with a file system.The primary benefit of raw devices is the ability to perform  direct I/O  and to write larger buffers. In direct I/O, applications write to and read from the storage device directly, bypassing the operating system buffer cache. 4. Cluster file system A  cluster file system  is software that enables multiple computers to share file storage while maintaining consistent space allocation and file content. In an Oracle RAC environment, a cluster file system makes shared storage appears as a file system shared by many computers in a clustered env ironment.With a cluster file system, the failure of a computer in the cluster does not make the file system unavailable. In an operating system file system, however, if a computer sharing files through NFS or other means fails, then the file system is unavailable. A database employs a combination of the preceding storage mechanisms. For example, a database could store the control files and online redo log files in a traditional file system, some user data files on raw partitions, the remaining data files in Oracle ASM, and archived the redo log files to a cluster file system. Indexes in OracleThere are several types of indexes available in Oracle all designed for different circumstances: 1. b*tree indexes – the most common type (especially in OLTP environments) and the default type 2. b*tree cluster indexes – for clusters 3. hash cluster indexes – for hash clusters 4. reverse key indexes – useful in Oracle Real Application Cluster (RAC) applications 5. bi tmap indexes – common in data warehouse applications 6. partitioned indexes – also useful for data warehouse applications 7. function-based indexes 8. index organized tables 9. domain indexesLet's look at these Oracle index types in a little more detail. B*Tree Indexes B*tree stands for balanced tree. This means that the height of the index is the same for all values thereby ensuring that retrieving the data for any one value takes approximately the same amount of time as for any other value. Oracle b*tree indexes are best used when each value has a high cardinality (low number of occurrences)for example primary key indexes or unique indexes. One important point to note is that NULL values are not indexed. They are the most common type of index in OLTP systems. B*Tree Cluster IndexesThese are B*tree index defined for clusters. Clusters are two or more tables with one or more common columns and are usually accessed together (via a join). CREATE INDEX product_orders_ix O N CLUSTER product_orders; Hash Cluster Indexes In a hash cluster rows that have the same hash key value (generated by a hash function) are stored together in the Oracle database. Hash clusters are equivalent to indexed clusters, except the index key is replaced with a hash function. This also means that here is no separate index as the hash is the index. CREATE CLUSTER emp_dept_cluster (dept_id NUMBER) HASHKEYS 50; Reverse Key IndexesThese are typically used in Oracle Real Application Cluster (RAC) applications. In this type of index the bytes of each of the indexed columns are reversed (but the column order is maintained). This is useful when new data is always inserted at one end of the index as occurs when using a sequence as it ensures new index values are created evenly across the leaf blocks preventing the index from becoming unbalanced which may in turn affect performance. CREATE INDEX emp_ix ON emp(emp_id) REVERSE; Bitmap Indexes These are commonly used in data warehouse app lications for tables with no updates and whose columns have low cardinality (i. . there are few distinct values). In this type of index Oracle stores a bitmap for each distinct value in the index with 1 bit for each row in the table. These bitmaps are expensive to maintain and are therefore not suitable for applications which make a lot of writes to the data. For example consider a car manufacturer which records information about cars sold including the colour of each car. Each colour is likely to occur many times and is therefore suitable for a bitmap index. CREATE BITMAP INDEX car_col ON cars(colour) REVERSE; Partitioned IndexesPartitioned Indexes are also useful in Oracle datawarehouse applications where there is a large amount of data that is partitioned by a particular dimension such as time. Partition indexes can either be created as local partitioned indexes or global partitioned indexes. Local partitioned indexes mean that the index is partitioned on the same columns and wit h the same number of partitions as the table. For global partitioned indexes the partitioning is user defined and is not the same as the underlying table. Refer to the create index statement in the Oracle SQL language reference for details. Function-based IndexesAs the name suggests these are indexes created on the result of a function modifying a column value. For example CREATE INDEX upp_ename ON emp(UPPER(ename((; The function must be deterministic (always return the same value for the same input). Index Organized Tables In an index-organized table all the data is stored in the Oracle database in a B*tree index structure defined on the table's primary key. This is ideal when related pieces of data must be stored together or data must be physically stored in a specific order. Index-organized tables are often used for information retrieval, spatial and OLAP applications.Domain Indexes These indexes are created by user-defined indexing routines and enable the user to define his or h er own indexes on custom data types (domains) such as pictures, maps or fingerprints for example. These types of index require in-depth knowledge about the data and how it will be accessed. Indexes in Sql Server Index type| Description| Clustered| A clustered index sorts and stores the data rows of the table or view in order based on the clustered index key. The clustered index is implemented as a B-tree index structure that supports fast retrieval of the rows, based on their clustered index key values. Nonclustered| A nonclustered index can be defined on a table or view with a clustered index or on a heap. Each index row in the nonclustered index contains the nonclustered key value and a row locator. This locator points to the data row in the clustered index or heap having the key value. The rows in the index are stored in the order of the index key values, but the data rows are not guaranteed to be in any particular order unless a clustered index is created on the table. | Unique| A unique index ensures that the index key contains no duplicate values and therefore every row in the table or view is in some way unique.Both clustered and nonclustered indexes can be unique. | Index with included columns| A nonclustered index that is extended to include nonkey columns in addition to the key columns. | Full-text| A special type of token-based functional index that is built and maintained by the Microsoft Full-Text Engine for SQL Server. It provides efficient support for sophisticated word searches in character string data. | Spatial| A spatial index provides the ability to perform certain operations more efficiently on spatial objects (spatial data) in a column of the  geometry  data type.The spatial index reduces the number of objects on which relatively costly spatial operations need to be applied. | Filtered| An optimized nonclustered index especially suited to cover queries that select from a well-defined subset of data. It uses a filter predicate to index a portion of rows in the table. A well-designed filtered index can improve query performance, reduce index maintenance costs, and reduce index storage costs compared with full-table indexes. | XML| A shredded, and persisted, representation of the XML binary large objects (BLOBs) in the  xml  data type column. | SQL Server Storage StructuresSQL Server does not see data and storage in exactly the same way a DBA or end-user does. DBA sees initialized devices, device fragments allocated to databases, segments defined within Databases, tables defined within segments, and rows stored in tables. SQL Server views storage at a lower level as device fragments allocated to databases, pages allocated to tables and indexes within the database, and information stored on pages. There are two basic types of storage structures in a database. * Linked data pages * Index trees. All information in SQL Server is stored at the page level. When a database is created, all spaceAllocated to it is divid ed into a number of pages, each page 2KB in size. There are five types of pages within SQL Server: 1. Data and log pages 2. Index pages 3. Text/image pages 4. Allocation pages 5. Distribution pages All pages in SQL Server contain a page header. The page header is 32 bytes in size and contains the logical page number, the next and previous logical page numbers in the page linkage, the object_id of the object to which the page belongs, the minimum row size, the next available row number within the page, and the byte location of the start of the free space on the page.The contents of a page header can be examined by using the dbcc page command. You must be logged in as sa to run the dbcc page command. The syntax for the dbcc page command is as follows: dbcc page (dbid | page_no [,0 | 1 | 2]) The SQL Server keeps track of which object a page belongs to, if any. The allocation of pages within SQL Server is managed through the use of allocation units and allocation pages. Allocation Pages Space is allocated to a SQL Server database by the create database and alter database commands. The space allocated to a database is divided into a number of 2KB pages.Each page is assigned a logical page number starting at page 0 and increased sequentially. The pages are then divided into allocation units of 256 contiguous 2KB pages, or 512 bytes (1/2 MB) each. The first page of each allocation unit is an allocation page that controls the allocation of all pages within the allocation unit. The allocation pages control the allocation of pages to tables and indexes within the database. Pages are allocated in contiguous blocks of eight pages called extents. The minimum unit of allocation within a database is an extent.When a table is created, it is initially assigned a single extent, or 16KB of space, even if the table contains no rows. There are 32 extents within an allocation unit (256/8). An allocation page contains 32 extent structures for each extent within that allocation unit. Each extent structure is 16 bytes and contains the following information: 1. Object ID of object to which extent is allocated 2. Next extent ID in chain 3. Previous extent ID in chain 4. Allocation bitmap 5. Deallocation bitmap 6. Index ID (if any) to which the extent is allocated 7. StatusThe allocation bitmap for each extent structure indicates which pages within the allocated extent are in use by the table. The deallocation bit map is used to identify pages that have become empty during a transaction that has not yet been completed. The actual marking of the page as unused does not occur until the transaction is committed, to prevent another transaction from allocating the page before the transaction is complete. Data Pages A data page is the basic unit of storage within SQL Server. All the other types of pages within a database are essentially variations of the data page.All data pages contain a 32-byte header, as described earlier. With a 2KB page (2048 bytes) this leaves 2016 bytes for storing data within the data page. In SQL Server, data rows cannot cross page boundaries. The maximum size of a single row is 1962 bytes, including row overhead. Data pages are linked to one another by using the page pointers (prevpg, nextpg) contained in the page header. This page linkage enables SQL Server to locate all rows in a table by scanning all pages in the link. Data page linkage can be thought of as a two-way linked list.This enables SQL Server to easily link new pages into or unlink pages from the page linkage by adjusting the page pointers. In addition to the page header, each data page also contains data rows and a row offset table. The row-offset table grows backward from the end of the page and contains the location or each row on the data page. Each entry is 2 bytes wide. Data Rows Data is stored on data pages in data rows. The size of each data row is a factor of the sum of the size of the columns plus the row overhead. Each record in a data page is assi gned a row number. A single byte is used within each row to store the row number.Therefore, SQL Server has a maximum limit of 256 rows per page, because that is the largest value that can be stored in a single byte (2^8). For a data row containing all fixed-length columns, there are four bytes of overhead per row: 1. Byte to store the number of variable-length columns (in this case, 0) 1 byte to store the row number. 2. Bytes in the row offset table at the end of the page to store the location of the row on the page. If a data row contains variable-length columns, there is additional overhead per row. A data row is variable in size if any column is defined as varchar, varbinary, or allows null values.In addition to the 4 bytes of overhead described previously, the following bytes are required to store the actual row width and location of columns within the data row: 2 bytes to store the total row width 1 byte per variable-length column to store the starting location of the column wi thin the row 1 byte for the column offset table 1 additional byte for each 256-byte boundary passed Within each row containing variable-length columns, SQL Server builds a column offset table backward for the end of the row for each variable-length column in the table.Because only 1 byte is used for each column with a maximum offset of 255, an adjust byte must be created for each 256-byte boundary crossed as an additional offset. Variable-length columns are always stored after all fixed-length columns, regardless of the order of the columns in the table definition. Estimating Row and Table Sizes Knowing the size of a data row and the corresponding overhead per row helps you determine the number of rows that can be stored per page.The number of rows per page affects the system performance. A greater number of rows per page can help query performance by reducing the number of ages that need to be read to satisfy the query. Conversely, fewer rows per page help improve performance for c oncurrent transactions by reducing the chances of two or more users accessing rows on the same page that may be locked. Let's take a look at how you can estimate row and table sizes. Fixed-length fields with no null values.Sum of column widths overhead- The Row Offset Table The location of a row within a page is determined by using the row offset table at the end of the page. To find a specific row within the page, SQL Server looks in the row offset table for the starting byte address within the data page for that row ID. Note that SQL Server keeps all free space at the end of the data page, shifting rows up to fill in where a previous row was deleted and ensuring no space fragmentation within the page.If the offset table contains a zero value for a row ID that indicates that the row has been deleted. Index Structure All SQL Server indexes are B-Trees. There is a single root page at the top of the tree, branching out into N number of pages at each intermediate level until it reaches the bottom, or leaf level, of the index. The index tree is traversed by following pointers from the upper-level pages down through the lower-level pages. In addition, each index level is a separate page chain. There may be many intermediate levels in an index.The number of levels is dependent on the index key width, the type of index, and the number of rows and/or pages in the table. The number of levels is important in relation to index performance. Non-clustered Indexes A non-clustered index is analogous to an index in a textbook. The data is stored in one place, the index in another, with pointers to the storage location of the data. The items in the index are stored in the order of the index key values, but the information in the table is stored in a different order (which can be dictated by a clustered index).If no clustered index is created on the table, the rows are not guaranteed to be in any particular order. Similar to the way you use an index in a book, Microsoft ® SQL Serverâ„ ¢ 2000 searches for a data value by searching the non-clustered index to find the location of the data value in the table and then retrieves the data directly from that location. This makes non-clustered indexes the optimal choice for exact match queries because the index contains entries describing the exact location in the table of the data values being searched for in the queries.If the underlying table is sorted using a clustered index, the location is the clustering key value; otherwise, the location is the row ID (RID) comprised of the file number, page number, and slot number of the row. For example, to search for an employee ID (emp_id) in a table that has a non-clustered index on the emp_id column, SQL Server looks through the index to find an entry that lists the exact page and row in the table where the matching emp_id can be found, and then goes directly to that page and row. Clustered IndexesA clustered index determines the physical order of data in a table . A clustered index is analogous to a telephone directory, which arranges data by last name. Because the clustered index dictates the physical storage order of the data in the table, a table can contain only one clustered index. However, the index can comprise multiple columns (a composite index), like the way a telephone directory is organized by last name and first name. Clustered Indexes are very similar to Oracle's IOT's (Index-Organized Tables).A clustered index is particularly efficient on columns that are often searched for ranges of values. After the row with the first value is found using the clustered index, rows with subsequent indexed values are guaranteed to be physically adjacent. For example, if an application frequently executes a query to retrieve records between a range of dates, a clustered index can quickly locate the row containing the beginning date, and then retrieve all adjacent rows in the table until the last date is reached. This can help increase the perf ormance of this type of query.Also, if there is a column(s) that is used frequently to sort the data retrieved from a table, it can be advantageous to cluster (physically sort) the table on that column(s) to save the cost of a sort each time the column(s) is queried. Clustered indexes are also efficient for finding a specific row when the indexed value is unique. For example, the fastest way to find a particular employee using the unique employee ID column emp_id is to create a clustered index or PRIMARY KEY constraint on the emp_id column.Note  Ã‚  PRIMARY KEY constraints create clustered indexes automatically if no clustered index already exists on the table and a non-clustered index is not specified when you create the PRIMARY KEY constraint. Index Structures Indexes are created on columns in tables or views. The index provides a fast way to look up data based on the values within those columns. For example, if you create an index on the primary key and then search for a row of data based on one of the primary key values, SQL Server first finds that value in the index, and then uses the index to quickly locate the entire row of data.Without the index, a table scan would have to be performed in order to locate the row, which can have a significant effect on performance. You can create indexes on most columns in a table or a view. The exceptions are primarily those columns configured with large object (LOB) data types, such as  image,  text,  and  varchar(max). You can also create indexes on XML columns, but those indexes are slightly different from the basic index and are beyond the scope of this article. Instead, I'll focus on those indexes that are implemented most commonly in a SQL Server database.An index is made up of a set of pages (index nodes) that are organized in a B-tree structure. This structure is hierarchical in nature, with the root node at the top of the hierarchy and the leaf nodes at the bottom, as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: B-t ree structure of a SQL Server index When a query is issued against an indexed column, the query engine starts at the root node and navigates down through the intermediate nodes, with each layer of the intermediate level more granular than the one above. The query engine continues down through the index nodes until it reaches the leaf node.For example, if you’re searching for the value 123 in an indexed column, the query engine would first look in the root level to determine which page to reference in the top intermediate level. In this example, the first page points the values 1-100, and the second page, the values 101-200, so the query engine would go to the second page on that level. The query engine would then determine that it must go to the third page at the next intermediate level. From there, the query engine would navigate to the leaf node for value 123.The leaf node will contain either the entire row of data or a pointer to that row, depending on whether the index is clustered or nonclustered. Clustered Indexes A clustered index stores the actual data rows at the leaf level of the index. Returning to the example above, that would mean that the entire row of data associated with the primary key value of 123 would be stored in that leaf node. An important characteristic of the clustered index is that the indexed values are sorted in either ascending or descending order.As a result, there can be only one clustered index on a table or view. In addition, data in a table is sorted only if a clustered index has been defined on a table. Note:  A table that has a clustered index is referred to as a  clustered table. A table that has no clustered index is referred to as a  heap. Nonclustered Indexes Unlike a clustered indexed, the leaf nodes of a nonclustered index contain only the values from the indexed columns and row locators that point to the actual data rows, rather than contain the data rows themselves.This means that the query engine must t ake an additional step in order to locate the actual data. A row locator’s structure depends on whether it points to a clustered table or to a heap. If referencing a clustered table, the row locator points to the clustered index, using the value from the clustered index to navigate to the correct data row. If referencing a heap, the row locator points to the actual data row. Nonclustered indexes cannot be sorted like clustered indexes; however, you can create more than one nonclustered index per table or view.SQL Server 2005 supports up to 249 nonclustered indexes, and SQL Server 2008 support up to 999. This certainly doesn’t mean you should create that many indexes. Indexes can both help and hinder performance, as I explain later in the article. In addition to being able to create multiple nonclustered indexes on a table or view, you can also add  included columns  to your index. This means that you can store at the leaf level not only the values from the indexed column, but also the values from non-indexed columns. This strategy allows you to get around some of the limitations on indexes.For example, you can include non-indexed columns in order to exceed the size limit of indexed columns (900 bytes in most cases). Index Types In addition to an index being clustered or nonclustered, it can be configured in other ways: * Composite index:  An index that contains more than one column. In both SQL Server 2005 and 2008, you can include up to 16 columns in an index, as long as the index doesn’t exceed the 900-byte limit. Both clustered and nonclustered indexes can be composite indexes. * Unique Index:  An index that ensures the uniqueness of each value in the indexed column.If the index is a composite, the uniqueness is enforced across the columns as a whole, not on the individual columns. For example, if you were to create an index on the FirstName and LastName columns in a table, the names together must be unique, but the individual n ames can be duplicated. A unique index is automatically created when you define a primary key or unique constraint: * Primary key:  When you define a primary key constraint on one or more columns, SQL Server automatically creates a unique, clustered index if a clustered index does not already exist on the table or view.However, you can override the default behavior and define a unique, nonclustered index on the primary key. * Unique:  When you define a unique constraint, SQL Server automatically creates a unique, nonclustered index. You can specify that a unique clustered index be created if a clustered index does not already exist on the table. * Covering index:  A type of index that includes all the columns that are needed to process a particular query. For example, your query might retrieve the FirstName and LastName columns from a table, based on a value in the ContactID column.You can create a covering index that includes all three columns. Teradata What is the Teradata R DBMS? The Teradata RDBMS is a complete relational database management system. With the Teradata RDBMS, you can access, store, and operate on data using Teradata Structured Query Language (Teradata SQL). It is broadly compatible with IBM and ANSI SQL. Users of the client system send requests to the Teradata RDBMS through the Teradata Director Program (TDP) using the Call-Level Interface (CLI) program (Version 2) or via Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) using the Teradata ODBC Driver.As data requirements grow increasingly complex, so does the need for a faster, simpler way to manage data warehouse. That combination of unmatched performance and efficient management is built into the foundation of the Teradata Database. The Teradata Database is continuously being enhanced with new features and functionality that automatically distribute data and balance mixed workloads even in the most complex environments.Teradata Database 14  currently offers low total cost of ownership in a simple, scalable, parallel and self-managing solution. This proven, high-performance decision support engine running on the  Teradata Purpose-Built Platform Family offers a full suite of data access and management tools, plus world-class services. The Teradata Database supports installations from fewer than 10 gigabytes to huge warehouses with hundreds of terabytes and thousands of customers. Features & BenefitsAutomatic Built-In Functionality  | Fast Query Performance  | â€Å"Parallel Everything† design and smart Teradata Optimizer enables fast query execution across platforms| | Quick Time to Value  | Simple set up steps with automatic â€Å"hands off† distribution of data, along with integrated load utilities result in rapid installations| | Simple to Manage  | DBAs never have to set parameters, manage table space, or reorganize data| | Responsive to Business Change  | Fully parallel MPP â€Å"shared nothing† architecture scales linearly across data, us ers, and applications providing consistent and predictable performance and growth| Easy Set & G0† Optimization Options  | Powerful, Embedded Analytics  | In-database data mining, virtual OLAP/cubes, geospatial and temporal analytics, custom and embedded services in an extensible open parallel framework drive efficient and differentiated business insight| | Advanced Workload Management  | Workload management options by user, application, time of day and CPU exceptions| | Intelligent Scan Elimination  | â€Å"Set and Go† options reduce full file scanning (Primary, Secondary, Multi-level Partitioned Primary, Aggregate Join Index, Sync Scan)| Physical Storage Structure of Teradata Teradata offers a true hybrid row and Column database.All database management systems constantly tinker with the internal structure of the files on disk. Each release brings an improvement or two that has been steadily improving analytic workload performance. However, few of the key player s in relational database management systems (RDBMS) have altered the fundamental structure of having all of the columns of the table stored consecutively on disk for each record. The innovations and practical use cases of â€Å"columnar databases† have come from the independent vendor world, where it has proven to be quite effective in the performance of an increasingly important class of analytic query.These columnar databases store data by columns instead of rows. This means that all values of a single column are stored consecutively on disk. The columns are tied together as â€Å"rows† only in a catalog reference. This gives a much finer grain of control to the RDBMS data manager. It can access only the columns required for the query as opposed to being forced to access all columns of the row. It’s optimal for queries that need a small percentage of the columns in the tables they are in but suboptimal when you need most of the columns due to the overhead in a ttaching all of the columns together to form the result sets.Teradata 14 Hybrid Columnar The unique innovation by Teradata, in Teradata 14, is to add columnar structure to a table, effectively mixing row structure, column structures and multi-column structures directly in the DBMS which already powers many of the largest data warehouses in the world. With intelligent exploitation of Teradata Columnar in Teradata 14, there is no longer the need to go outside the data warehouse DBMS for the power of performance that columnar provides, and it is no longer necessary to sacrifice robustness and support in the DBMS that holds the post-operational data.A major component of that robustness is parallelism, a feature that has obviously fueled much of Teradata’s leadership position in large-scale enterprise data warehousing over the years. Teradata’s parallelism, working with the columnar elements, are creating an entirely new paradigm in analytic computing – the pinpoint accuracy of I/O with column and row partition elimination. With columnar and parallelism, the I/O executes very precisely on data interesting to the query. This is finally a strong, and appropriate, architectural response to the I/O bottleneck issue that analytic queries have been living with for a decade.It also may be Teradata Database’s most significant enhancement in that time. The physical structure of each container can also be in row (extensive page metadata including a map to offsets) which is referred to as â€Å"row storage format,† or columnar (the row â€Å"number† is implied by the value’s relative position). Partition Elimination and Columnar The idea of data division to create smaller units of work as well as to make those units of work relevant to the query is nothing new to Teradata Database, and most DBMSs for that matter.While the concept is being applied now to the columns of a table, it has long been applied to its rows in the form of partitioning and parallelism. One of the hallmarks of Teradata’s unique approach is that all database functions (table scan, index scan, joins, sorts, insert, delete, update, load and all utilities) are done in parallel all of the time. There is no conditional parallelism. All units of parallelism participate in each database action. Teradata eliminates partitions from needing I/O by reading its metadata to understand the range of data placed into the partitions and eliminating those that are washed out by the predicates.See Figure There is no change to partition elimination in Teradata 14 except that the approach also works with columnar data, creating a combination row and column elimination possibility. In a partitioned, multi-container table, the unneeded containers will be virtually eliminated from consideration based on the selection and projection conditions of the query. See Figure Following the column elimination, unneeded partitions will be virtually eliminated fro m consideration based on the projection conditions.For the price of a few metadata reads to facilitate the eliminations, the I/O can now specifically retrieve a much focused set of data. The addition of columnar elimination reduces the expensive I/O operation, and hence the query execution time, by orders of magnitude for column-selective queries. The combination of row and column elimination is a unique characteristic of Teradata’s implementation of columnar. Compression in Teradata Columnar Storage costs, while decreasing on a per-capita basis over time, are still consuming increasing budget due to the massive increase in the volume of data to store.While the data is required to be under management, it is equally required that the data be compressed. In addition to saving on storage costs, compression also greatly aids the I/O problem, effectively offering up more relevant information in each I/O. Columnar storage provides a unique opportunity to take advantage of a series of compression routines that make more sense when dealing with well-defined data that has limited variance like a column (versus a row with high variability. ) Teradata Columnar utilizes several compression methods that take advantage of the olumnar orientation of the data. A few methods are highlighted below. Run-Length Encoding When there are repeating values (e. g. , many successive rows with the value of ‘12/25/11’ in the date container), these are easily compressed in columnar systems like Teradata Columnar, which uses â€Å"run length encoding† to simply indicate the range of rows for which the value applies. Dictionary Encoding Even when the values are not repeating successively, as in the date example, if they are repeating in the container, there is opportunity to do a dictionary representation of the data to further save space.Dictionary encoding is done in Teradata Columnar by storing compressed forms of the complete value. The dictionary representatio ns are fixed length which allows the data pages to remain void of internal maps to where records begin. The records begin at fixed offsets from the beginning of the container and no â€Å"value-level† metadata is required. This small fact saves calculations at run-time for page navigation, another benefit of columnar. For example, 1=Texas, 2=Georgia and 3=Florida could be in the dictionary, and when those are the column values, the 1, 2 and 3 are used in lieu of Texas, Georgia and Florida.If there are 1,000,000 customers with only 50 possible values for state, the entire vector could be stored with 1,000,000 bytes (one byte minimum per value). In addition to dictionary compression, including the â€Å"trimming†8 of character fields, traditional compression (with algorithm UTF8) is made available to Teradata Columnar data. Delta Compression Fields in a tight range of values can also benefit from only storing the offset (â€Å"delta†) from a set value. Teradata Co lumnar calculates an average for a container and can store only the offsets from that value in place of the field.Whereas the value itself might be an integer, the offsets can be small integers, which double the space utilization. Compression methods like this lose their effectiveness when a variety of field types, such as found in a typical row, need to be stored consecutively. The compression methods are applied automatically (if desired) to each container, and can vary across all the columns of a table or even from container to container within a column9 based on the characteristics of the data in the container.Multiple methods can be used with each column, which is a strong feature of Teradata Columnar. The compounding effect of the compression in columnar databases is a tremendous improvement over the standard compression that would be available for a strict row-based DBMS. Teradata Indexes Teradata provides several indexing options for optimizing the performance of your relati onal databases. i. Primary Indexes ii. Secondary Indexes iii. Join Indexes iv. Hash Indexes v. Reference Indexes Primary Index Primary index determines the distribution of table rows on the disks controlled by AMPs.In Teradata RDBMS, a primary index is required for row distribution and storage. When a new row is inserted, its hash code is derived by applying a hashing algorithm to the value in the column(s) of the primary code (as show in the following figure). Rows having the same primary index value are stored on the same AMP. Rules for defining primary indexes The primary indexes for a table should represent the data values most used by the SQL to access the data for the table. Careful selection of the primary index is one of the most important steps in creating a table.Defining primary indexes should follow the following rules: * A primary index should be defined to provide a nearly uniform distribution of rows among the AMPs, the more unique the index, the more even the distrib ution of rows and the better space utilization. * The index should be defined on as few columns as possible. * Primary index can be either Unique or non-unique. A unique index must have a unique value in the corresponding fields of every row;   a non-unique index permits the insertion of duplicate field values. The unique primary index is more efficient. Once created, the primary index cannot be dropped or modified, the index must be changed by recreating the table. If a primary index is not defined in the CREATE TABLE statement through an explicit declaration of a PRIMARY INDEX, the default is to use one of the following: * PRIMARY key * First UNIQUE constraint * First column The primary index values are stored in an integral part of the primary table. It should be based on the set selection most frequently used to access rows from a table and on the uniqueness of the value.Secondary Index In addition to a primary index, up to 32 unique and non-unique secondary indexes can be def ined for a table. Comparing to primary indexes, Secondary indexes allow access to information in a table by alternate, less frequently used paths. A secondary index is a subtable that is stored in all AMPs, but separately from the primary table. The subtables, which are built and maintained by the system, contain the following; * RowIDs of the subtable rows * Base table index column values * RowIDs of the base table rows (points)As shown in the following figure, the secondary index subtable on each AMP is associated with the base table by the rowID . Defining and creating secondary index Secondary index are optional. Unlike the primary index, a secondary index can be added or dropped without recreating the table. There can be one or more secondary indexes in the CREATE TABLE statement, or add them to an existing table using the CREATE INDEX statement or ALTER TABLE statement. DROP INDEX can be used to dropping a named or unnamed secondary index.Since secondary indexes require subtab les, these subtables require additional disk space and, therefore, may require additional I/Os for INSERTs, DELETEs, and UPDATEs. Generally, secondary index are defined on column values frequently used in WHERE constraints. Join Index A join index is an indexing structure containing columns from multiple tables, specifically the resulting columns form one or more tables. Rather than having to join individual tables each time the join operation is needed, the query can be resolved via a join index and, in most cases, dramatically improve performance.Effects of Join index Depending on the complexity of the joins, the Join Index helps improve the performance of certain types of work. The following need to be considered when manipulating join indexes: * Load Utilities  Ã‚  Ã‚   The join indexes are not supported by MultiLoad and FastLoad utilities, they must be dropped and   recreated after the table has been loaded. * Archive and Restore  Ã‚  Ã‚   Archive and Restore cannot be us ed on join index itself. During a restore of   a base table or database, the join index is marked as invalid.The join index must be dropped and recreated before it can be used again in the execution of queries. * Fallback Protection  Ã‚  Ã‚   Join index subtables cannot be Fallback-protected. * Permanent Journal Recovery  Ã‚  Ã‚   The join index is not automatically rebuilt during the recovery process. Instead, the join index is marked as invalid and the join index must be dropped and recreated before it can be used again in the execution of queries. * Triggers  Ã‚  Ã‚   A join index cannot be defined on a table with triggers. Collecting Statistics  Ã‚  Ã‚   In general, there is no benefit in collecting statistics on a join index for joining columns specified in the join index definition itself. Statistics related to these columns should be collected on the underlying base table rather than on the join index. Defining and creating secondary index Join indexes can be create d and dropped by using CREATE JOIN INDEX and DROP JOIN INDEX statements. Join indexes are automatically maintained by the system when updates (UPDATE, DELETE, and INSERT) are performed on the underlying base tables.Additional steps are included in the execution plan to regenerate the affected portion of the stored join result. Hash Indexes Hash indexes are used for the same purposes as single-table join indexes. The principal difference between hash and single-table join indexes are listed in the following table. Hash indexes create a full or partial replication of a base table with a primary index on a foreign key column table to facilitate joins of very large tables by hashing them to the same AMP. You can define a hash index on one table only.The functionality of hash indexes is a superset to that of single-table join indexes. Hash indexes are not indexes in the usual sense of the word. They are base tables that cannot be accessed directly by a query. The Optimizer includes a has h index in a query plan in the following situations. * The index covers all or part of a join query, thus eliminating the need to redistribute rows to make the join. In the case of partial query covers, the Optimizer uses certain implicitly defined elements in the hash index to join it with its underlying base table to pick up the base table columns necessary to complete the cover. A query requests that one or more columns be aggregated, thus eliminating the need to perform the aggregate computation For the most part, hash index storage is identical to standard base table storage except that hash indexes can be compressed. Hash index rows are hashed and partitioned on their primary index (which is always defined as non-unique). Hash index tables can be indexed explicitly, and their indexes are stored just like non-unique primary indexes for any other base table.Unlike join indexes, hash index definitions do not permit you to specify secondary indexes. The major difference in storage between hash indexes and standard base tables is the manner in which the repeated field values of a hash index are stored. Reference Indexes A reference index is an internal structure that the system creates whenever a referential integrity constraint is defined between tables using a PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE constraint on the parent table in the relationship and a REFERENCES constraint on a foreign key in the child table.The index row contains a count of the number of references in the child, or foreign key, table to the PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE constraint in the parent table. Apart from capacity planning issues, reference indexes have no user visibility. References for Teradata http://www. teradata. com/products-and-services/database/ http://teradata. uark. edu/research/wang/indexes. html http://www. teradata. com/products-and-services/database/teradata-13/ http://www. odbms. org/download/illuminate%20Comparison. pdf